Like many western aircraft of loosely similar size and configuration, the Il-14 was developed as a replacement for the then irreplaceable Douglas DC-3 and Russian Li-2.
As with so many other countries around the world the Soviet Union's immediate postwar airline system was heavily dependant on war surplus DC-3/C-47s as well as the Lisunov Li-2 (Soviet licence built development of the DC-3). In the late 1940s/early 1950s Aeroflot developed a requirement for a modern replacement of the Li-2 and the DC-3. Ilyushin responded with a low wing tricycle undercarriage design powered by two Shvetsov radials with maximum seating for 27. This aircraft was designated the Il-12.
The Il-14 is an improved development of the basic Il-12 design. The major improvement Ilyushin introduced was a new wing design featuring a more efficient aerofoil section, plus more powerful Shvetsov engines and a general clean up of the airframe.
Given the NATO reporting name "Crate", the Il-14 is believed to have entered service in 1954 or 1955. Initial service models were designated Il-14P (Passazhirskii or passenger) and they were reconfigured to seat 18. Approximately two years after entry into service most Il-14Ps were configured to seat 24 passengers in a higher density configuration. By 1956 a slightly stretched development, the Il-14M (Modifitsirovanny/modified), had appeared. Initially the Il-14M was configured to seat 24, but this was later changed to 36. Very few modifications were made to the Il-14 during its production run, although many freighter Il-14Ts (Transportny/transport) were built, while many airliner Il-14s were later converted to freighters.
While most Il-14s were built in Russia, at Khodinka and Tashkent, Il-14s were also built under licence in the former Eastern Germany by VEB Flugzeugwerke and the former Czechoslovakia by Avia, 80 VEB Il-14Ps and 203 Avia 14s were built.
Today few Il-14s remain in service, most are used for general freight and charter work.
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