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The Sud SE-210 Caravelle

Country of origin  
France

Photos  

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Photo © Pedro Aragão

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Powerplants  
Caravelle 10B - Two 64.4kN (14,500lb) Pratt & Whitney JT8D-9 turbofans.
Earlier Caravelle versions (Mk I, IA, III and VI) were powered by two 48.9 to 56.0kN (11,000 to 12,600lb) thrust class Rolls-Royce RA.29 Avon turbojets.

Performance  
Caravelle 10B - Max cruising speed 825km/h (445kt). Range with max payload 2650km (1450nm), range with max fuel 3640km (1965nm).

Weights  
10B - Operating empty 30,055kg (66,260lb), max takeoff 56,000kg (123,460lb).
Earlier series Avon powered versions max takeoff weights range from 46,000kg (101,413lb) for the Mk III to 50,000kg (110,230lb) for the Mk VI-R.

Dimensions  
Caravelle 10B - Wing span 34.30m (112ft 6in), length 33.01m (108ft 3.5in), height 8.72m (28ft 7in). Wing area 146.7m2 (1579sq ft).
Caravelle Mks I, IA, III and VI same except for length 32.01m (105ft 0in).
Caravelle 12 featured 3.21m (10ft 7in) fuselage stretch over the Caravelle 10.

Capacity  
Caravelle 10 - Flightcrew of two pilots and one flight engineer. Max passengers 100 at five abreast in a high density layout. Typical accommodation for 91 passengers in a mixed class arrangement. Maximum payload 9100kg (20,600lb).

Production  
282 production Caravelles built between 1958 and 1972. 8 remained in commercial service in late 2002.

Type  
Short range airliner

History  

The Caravelle was the first jet airliner to enter production in continental Europe and pioneered the rear mounted engine layout.

The Caravelle was designed in response to a French Secretariat General of Commercial and Civil Aviation requirement for a 1600 to 2000km (865 to 1080nm) range airliner (allowing operations between France and its North African dependents) with a 6000 to 7000kg (13,228 to 15,432lb) payload requirement at a speed of 620km/h (335kt). SNCASE (Societe Nationale de Constructions Aeronautiques de Sud-Est, later Sud Aviation, and subsequently merged into Aerospatiale), responded with a trijet design designated the X120, with three rear mounted SNECMA Atar turbojets. This design then matured to feature two rear mounted Rolls-Royce Avons.

The French government ordered two flying and two static prototypes of the twinjet in 1953, resulting in the type's first flight on May 27 1955. Entry into service of the SE-210 Caravelle I with Air France was on May 12 1959 on the Paris/Rome/Istanbul route.

The Caravelle III featured 50.7kN (11,400lb) Avon RA.29 Mk527s (one Caravelle III was powered by General Electric CJ805-23C turbofans, but production never eventuated). The 54.3kN (12,200lb) Avon RA.29 Mk531 powered VI-N and the VI-R with a modified windscreen and thrust reversers followed.

The Caravelle 10B introduced more fuel efficient Pratt & Whitney JT8D turbofans, while the 11R was a convertible passenger/freighter based on the 10. The ultimate Caravelle model was the 3.20m (10ft 6in) stretched Caravelle. It could seat up to 128 single class passengers.

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The backbone of this section is from the The International Directory of Civil Aircraft by Gerard Frawley and used with permission. To get your own copy of the book click here.