Country of Origin
Short range airliner
For many years the Tupolev Tu-134 was the standard short haul jet airliner in the Soviet Union and eastern Europe. The Tupolev design bureau was responsible for the Soviet Union's first jet powered airliner, the Tu-104 (which was based on the Tu-16 `Badger' bomber), and the Tu-104's smaller brother the Tu-124. Both of these short range jetliners suffered from a number of performance shortfalls however, thus prompting development of the Tu-134. The initial Tu-134 design was based fairly closely on the Tu-124, and for a time was designated the Tu-124A. However Tupolev decided to reconfigure the aircraft to feature rear fuselage mounted engines and a Ttail, resulting in the new designation. Six development Tu-134s were built, with the first flying during 1962. Production began in 1964 although it was not until September 1967 that Aeroflot launched full commercial services. Initial production was of the standard fuselage length Tu-134, while the stretched Tu-134A entered Aeroflot service in the second half of 1970. Seating up to 76 in a single class, the Tu-134A differed from the Tu-134 in having a 2.10m (6ft 11in) fuselage stretch, a reprofiled nose, more powerful D30 engines and an APU. Other versions are the Tu-134B with a forward facing position for the third crew member between and behind the pilots, the Tu-134B1 which has a revised interior to seat up to 90 passengers without a galley, and the Tu-134B3 which can seat 96 with full galley and toilet facilities retained.
Tu-134 - Two 64.5kN (14,490lb) Soloviev D30 turbofans. Tu-134A - Two 66.7kN (14,990lb) Soloviev D30 Series IIs.
Tu-134 - Max cruising speed 900km/h (485kt), economical cruising speed 750km/h (405kt). Normal operating ceiling 39,730ft. Range with 7000kg (15,420lb) payload and reserves 2400km (1295nm), with 3000kg (6600lb) payload 3500km (1890nm). Tu-134A - Max cruising speed 900km/h (485kt), economical cruising speed 750km/h (405kt). Range with 5000kg (11,025lb) payload and reserves 3020km (1630nm).
Tu-134 - Operating empty 27,500kg (60,627lb), max takeoff 44,500kg (98,105lb). Tu-134A - Operating empty 29,050kg (64,045lb), max takeoff 47,000kg (103,600lb).
Tu-134 - Wing span 29.00m (95ft 2in), length 34.35m (112ft 8in), height 9.02m (29ft 7in). Wing area 127.3m2 (1370.3sq ft). Tu-134A - Same except length 37.05m (121ft 7in), height 9.14m (30ft 0in).
Flightcrew of three, comprising two pilots and a navigator. Tu-134 seats 72 in a single class. Tu-134A seats up to 84 passengers in a single class at four abreast, or 12 first class and 54 economy class at four abreast in a two class arrangement. Tu-134B3 can seat up to 96 in a single class.
Production estimated at over 700, most for Aeroflot, but approximately 170 exported to various east European airlines and other Soviet client states. Approx 365 were in service in late 1998.
The backbone of this section is from the The International Directory of Civil Aircraft by Gerard Frawley and used with permission. To get your own copy of the book click here.