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Airlines That Changed Europe, Help?  
User currently offlineJewPilot From United States of America, joined Sep 2006, 110 posts, RR: 0
Posted (6 years 10 months 2 weeks 1 day 7 hours ago) and read 3240 times:

Hey Everyone,

I am wondering if you can help me out. My AP European History teacher just unleashed a massive project upon my class. We have to create a Document Based Essay Question (an essay in which one analyzes 12-15 historical documents, charts, pictures etc and uses them combined with outside knowledge of the subject to answer the question), and write a four to five page paper answering the question we create with the documents we find. My teacher knows that I have a job in the aviation field and that aviation is..well...my life. He suggested to me that I do my DBQ on something aviation related. So I am wondering, does anyone have any suggestions as to what airlines contributed to Europe in the 20th century (WWII and later if possible), particularly in the aspects of cultural, economical, and political change?? If I am being confusing, let me know, and I will try to break it down a little further. Thanks for all of your help!!

~JewPilot

P.S. I was thinking about Laker Airlines (Airways...?) and how they revolutionized the European LCC field, or something concerning Lufthansa during and post WWII. Any ideas would be wonderful!!


Go Sioux!
36 replies: All unread, showing first 25:
 
User currently offlineVV701 From United Kingdom, joined Aug 2005, 7536 posts, RR: 17
Reply 1, posted (6 years 10 months 2 weeks 20 hours ago) and read 3134 times:

One of the most significant contributions to European Commercial Aviation was the Berlin Airlift. Without trying to go into too much detail the four post World War II allied powers, France, UK, USA and USSR agreed to divide both Germany and Berlin into four zones, each controlled by one of the powers. Berlin was situated in the Soviet zone of Germany. The Soviets agreed that certain roads and railway lines from the other three German zones could be used for supplying the western controlled sectors of Berlin.

Post WW II relations between the western powers and the Soviets rapidly deteriorated from that of allies to that of enemies. And on 24 June 1948 the Soviets effectively blockaded the land routes from what later became The German Federal Republic to what was to become West Berlin/

From the start of the blockade until 11 May 1949 when it was lifted by the Soviets every lump of coal, every mouthful of food, every stitch of clothing, every implement, toy or other item used or sold in the American, British and French zones of Berlin had to be airlifted in.

Of course following the end of the war there was a huge surplus of ex-military transport planes in Europe, particularly C-47s. And there were a large number of similar aircraft still operated by the military. They were pressed into service for what started on 26 June - the Berlin Airlift.

By the time the blockade ended 278,000 flights including a peak of 1,398 in a single 24 hour period had been made along the three air corridors linking the west of Germany to the west of Berlin. A total of 2,330,000 tons of goods including 1,500.000 tons of coal had been airlifted to Berlin/

What was the impact on commercial aviation? While many of the flights were by military aircraft crewed by military personnel many were by entrepreneurial ex-military pilots flying ex-military transport aircraft. After the blockade these operators often sort to establish their own airlines.

Aircraft used by these often short lived airlines included not just the C-47 and the C-54 but, for example, the Avro York (a civilian derivative of the Avro Lancaster bomber that was still to be seen operating freight flights for Skyways from LHR in the mid 1960s).

A good source of original documents on the Berlin Airlift is the Harry S Truman Library and Museum:

http://www.trumanlibrary.org/whistle...ions/berlin_airlift/large/docs.php


User currently offlineVV701 From United Kingdom, joined Aug 2005, 7536 posts, RR: 17
Reply 2, posted (6 years 10 months 2 weeks 19 hours ago) and read 3098 times:

If you do a search in the photo section of a-net for "Berlin Airlift" you will come up with a large number of photos like these:

View Large View Medium
Click here for bigger photo!

Photo © Den Pascoe
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Photo © Den Pascoe



View Large View Medium
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Photo © Colin Zuppicich
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Photo © Ralph M. Pettersen



View Large View Medium
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Photo © Malcolm Clarke
View Large View Medium
Click here for bigger photo!

Photo © Alistair Bridges [Airplane-Pictures]



User currently offlineColumba From Germany, joined Dec 2004, 7063 posts, RR: 4
Reply 3, posted (6 years 10 months 2 weeks 19 hours ago) and read 3072 times:

I would also mention Pan Am and their Intra-German Service maybe a topic most Americans that are not very familar with Germany and/or aviation will not know about.
The situation in Berlin with only allied airlines being allowed to land there.
The East/West Situation in general would be an interesting field - you could mention that LOT although belonging to the Eastern part had western aircraft in its fleet (Convairs and Viscounts if I recall correctly) and one West-German airline flew Yak 40s (General Air).



It will forever be a McDonnell Douglas MD 80 , Boeing MD 80 sounds so wrong
User currently offlineOHLHD From Finland, joined Dec 2004, 3962 posts, RR: 25
Reply 4, posted (6 years 10 months 2 weeks 19 hours ago) and read 3067 times:

You should for sure mention LCC´s like Ryanair who were the first conquer the LCC market and followed by others.

Another example you could use is Swissair especially what the disastrous end meant to Europe and especially Switzerland.


User currently offlineWindowplease From United Kingdom, joined May 2007, 73 posts, RR: 0
Reply 5, posted (6 years 10 months 2 weeks 18 hours ago) and read 3014 times:

If this isn't too recent, I'd look at the impact LCCs like Ryanair and Wizz have had bringing Eastern European migrants to the West. There are maybe 600,000 Poles in the UK who have arrived in the last few years. Italy has attracted a similar number of Romanians...

This may shock US readers, but in cities like London there is now probably a bigger proportion of E. Europeans than the proportion of Mexicans and other central Americans in cities like LA or Houston.

It's a huge change. Good news if you''re looking to hire a plumber, less good news if you're a British plumber suddenly faced with an onslaught of competition.

All this has been made possible by the incredible number of flights between E European cities and provincial airports in the UK. A decade ago, who would have ever dreamed that there'd be a daily service between BRS and Poznan. Let alone a market for flights like DSA-Wroclaw.

In other words, cheap air travel has had and is having a huge change, especially in the UK.


another thought - you could look at what Iberia and charter airlines like Dan-Air did in converting Spain from an incredibly backward place in the 1960s to a much more modern society - all through the magic of package tourism.

[Edited 2007-11-12 08:15:41]

[Edited 2007-11-12 08:24:02]

User currently offlineJewPilot From United States of America, joined Sep 2006, 110 posts, RR: 0
Reply 6, posted (6 years 10 months 2 weeks 11 hours ago) and read 2856 times:

These are good suggestions everyone. Are there any more airlines that have reformed Europe? I like the Ryanair thing, but I was hoping for something more 1960s, 1970s around there. The Berlin Airlift thing is good too, but does anyone know where I can find historical documents from the British and French side of things? Thank you so much!!

JewPilot



Go Sioux!
User currently offlineGemuser From Australia, joined Nov 2003, 5664 posts, RR: 6
Reply 7, posted (6 years 10 months 2 weeks 7 hours ago) and read 2785 times:



Quoting JewPilot (Reply 6):
The Berlin Airlift thing is good too, but does anyone know where I can find historical documents from the British and French side of things?

Try the RAF Museum & the UK Public Rrcords Office for British docs.

Gemuser



DC23468910;B72172273373G73873H74374475275376377L77W;A319 320321332333343;BAe146;C402;DHC6;F27;L188;MD80MD85
User currently offlineNG1Fan From Australia, joined Aug 2007, 446 posts, RR: 0
Reply 8, posted (6 years 10 months 2 weeks 3 hours ago) and read 2744 times:

Wasn't Austrian Airlines one of the first to use twin-engine passenger aircraft to cross the Atlantic Ocean? Not sure this is that revolutionary compared to the Berlin Airlift though.

NG1Fan


User currently offlinePavlovsDog From Norway, joined Sep 2005, 658 posts, RR: 0
Reply 9, posted (6 years 10 months 2 weeks 2 hours ago) and read 2708 times:

Concorde would be another interesting topic seeing as how it put Europe back in the forefront when it came to public perception of technological advancement. As it was a bi-national effort it did a lot to promote the concept of Europe and was a forerunner to the Airbus consortium which is a true pan-European symbol.

User currently offlineOldeuropean From Germany, joined May 2005, 2091 posts, RR: 4
Reply 10, posted (6 years 10 months 2 weeks 2 hours ago) and read 2707 times:

Although the airlift is a important component of German post WWII history, it surely didn't change Europe and hardly could be called an airline.

Beside of the bigger national carriers, like BA (BOAC, BEA etc), AF, LH, KL, and AZ and their contribution to European aviation, and, as Windowplease mentioned: Ryanair and some other LCCs who changed the aviation industry in the last decade, I only would see European charter airlines as important for European societies.

Specially in Germany and in the UK (and also in Scandinavia and the Benelux states), these airlines (e.g. like in Germany: Condor, LTU or Hapag Lloyd) made the mass tourism possible. The transfer of millions of people every year from the north to the south (countries around the Mediterranean Sea) and two or three weeks later back, is an important part of European history and for many people the beginning of the possibility to get to know other nationalities and mentalities. It helped the understanding of other people, helped the economical development of the poorer south of Europe and was also, among others, a important contribution for the European unification.

Axel

[Edited 2007-11-13 00:04:29]

[Edited 2007-11-13 00:21:13]


Wer nichts weiss muss alles glauben
User currently offlineMadameConcorde From San Marino, joined Feb 2007, 10898 posts, RR: 37
Reply 11, posted (6 years 10 months 2 weeks 2 hours ago) and read 2691 times:

Definitely Concorde, with BAC and Aerospatiale. There was nothing such as Airbus at the time (60's).

Quoting PavlovsDog (Reply 9):
Concorde would be another interesting topic




There was a better way to fly it was called Concorde
User currently offlineOldeuropean From Germany, joined May 2005, 2091 posts, RR: 4
Reply 12, posted (6 years 10 months 2 weeks 2 hours ago) and read 2675 times:

Quoting MadameConcorde (Reply 11):
Definitely Concorde, with BAC and Aerospatiale. There was nothing such as Airbus at the time (60's).

Pardon Madame, how far did the Concorde changed Europe? Indeed it was a grandiose technical product and it had so much grace, but actually it was only an expensive toy for a few very rich people and nothing else.  Smile

Axel

[Edited 2007-11-13 00:16:36]


Wer nichts weiss muss alles glauben
User currently offlineColumba From Germany, joined Dec 2004, 7063 posts, RR: 4
Reply 13, posted (6 years 10 months 2 weeks 2 hours ago) and read 2665 times:



Quoting Oldeuropean (Reply 10):
it surely didn't change Europe

If something aviation related has changed Europe than the airlift.



It will forever be a McDonnell Douglas MD 80 , Boeing MD 80 sounds so wrong
User currently offlineOldeuropean From Germany, joined May 2005, 2091 posts, RR: 4
Reply 14, posted (6 years 10 months 2 weeks 2 hours ago) and read 2654 times:

Quoting Columba (Reply 13):
If something aviation related has changed Europe than the airlift.

Isn't it a bit Germancentric to argue that it changed Europe? It was part of German history and perhaps changed Germany, but how did it change Europe?

Call me a historian, who said this.

Axel

[Edited 2007-11-13 00:27:17]

[Edited 2007-11-13 00:35:10]


Wer nichts weiss muss alles glauben
User currently offlineCV990 From , joined Dec 1969, posts, RR:
Reply 15, posted (6 years 10 months 2 weeks 2 hours ago) and read 2636 times:

Hi!

I would also think about airlines like AF, SN, BOAC and TP and their contribution to open Europe to the African Continent. SN and AF for example had already networks serving some parts of Africa, TP for example started a long african route around the coast from Lisbon to Lourenço Marques - now Maputo - flying with the C-47. This flight took 1 week and it had stops al over Africa.
AF also pioneered flights from Europe to South America in the 30's!
Regards


User currently offlineBwest From Belgium, joined Jul 2006, 1370 posts, RR: 3
Reply 16, posted (6 years 10 months 2 weeks 2 hours ago) and read 2631 times:

I would say that the liberalisation of the EU skies has changed the face of Europe(an aviation). Well established carriers went under (Sabena & Swissair, Alitalia is struggling) or were taken over (KLM) or had to "redefine" themselves. Also, state owned carriers had to be privatised, which caused for considerable unrest among many of their workers. As such, you can take the aviation world as an example for the other sectors that were liberalised under EU pressure.

The liberalisation also allowed the massive growth of several LCC. It made the European market more competitive and allowed for a massive growth of routes. But at the same time, one could argue that the quality of service has dropped considerably and it made the idea of traveling by plane almost as common as taking a bus.

I admit that the EU is not the whole of Europe, but its decisions do influence even the non-european countries. Afterall, one of the reasons why Swissair took a share in Sabena was because it allowed them to enter the intra-EU market.



I love my Airport Job! :)
User currently offlineColumba From Germany, joined Dec 2004, 7063 posts, RR: 4
Reply 17, posted (6 years 10 months 2 weeks 1 hour ago) and read 2617 times:

Quoting Oldeuropean (Reply 14):

It was a clear sign to the Soviet Union that the US stands to Berlin and West Germany. If not for the airlift the Soviet Union would have had much more influence on Western Europe. If the Soviet Union would have taken Berlin and West Germany the border of the iron curtain would have been different and who knows if Stalin would have not taken the chance to take all of Western Europe if he had all of Germany.
When it comes to aviation and its influence on Europe I think the airlift is the most interesting part.

Another proposal for the topic but not related to airlines would be the history of Airbus as a multinational project.

[Edited 2007-11-13 01:13:45]


It will forever be a McDonnell Douglas MD 80 , Boeing MD 80 sounds so wrong
User currently offlineODAFZ From Afghanistan, joined Jul 2004, 357 posts, RR: 5
Reply 18, posted (6 years 10 months 2 weeks ago) and read 2594 times:

Laker airways and its Skytrain concept in the seventies.
First airline in Europe to try to break the monopoly of BA on Northern American routes..

British AW introduction of the first shuttle services in the UK in the mid-seventies, hourly links to Belfast and EDI

SAS and the conception of consortium airline which after 60 years is still alive unlike the demise of Air Afrique and the disappearance of Gulf Air as a Gulf Airlines, being now the airline of Bahrain (Oman withdrew this year).

British Airways and franchise airlines .

Just some thoughts


User currently offlineKL911 From Czech Republic, joined Jul 2003, 5141 posts, RR: 15
Reply 19, posted (6 years 10 months 1 week 6 days 19 hours ago) and read 2499 times:

How about the oldest airline in the world, KLM? KLM was already flying to Asia and Australia post WWII. ( The flights took forever, but still... Smile )

User currently offlineAbrelosojos From Venezuela, joined May 2005, 5100 posts, RR: 55
Reply 20, posted (6 years 10 months 1 week 6 days 19 hours ago) and read 2499 times:

Hey. Great topic to write about. Could I rejoin school and do fun things like this? I think most of the topics you will find would be super political and you have to be careful to highlight both sides of the debate. Personally, if you want to talk about pan-European change, I would focus on the what others have mentioned and talk about phenomenons such as deregulation and/or advent of LCCs which changed the composition and face of air travel. Otherwise, you could talk about how airlines were the tool of Euro foreign policy ... perhaps talk about say airline timetables and destination in the 60s serving political ideologies (perhaps include espionage flights of Aeroflot, Interflug), etc.

Some of the ones I personally did not like ...

Quoting Oldeuropean (Reply 12):
Pardon Madame, how far did the Concorde changed Europe? Indeed it was a grandiose technical product and it had so much grace, but actually it was only an expensive toy for a few very rich people and nothing else.

Axel

= Completely agree with Alex. The Concorde was like the Titanic ... I don't think it changed the way of life for most people.

Quoting Oldeuropean (Reply 14):
Isn't it a bit Germancentric to argue that it changed Europe? It was part of German history and perhaps changed Germany, but how did it change Europe?

Call me a historian, who said this.

Axel

= Again, would have to agree with Alex here.

Quoting CV990 (Reply 15):
Hi!

I would also think about airlines like AF, SN, BOAC and TP and their contribution to open Europe to the African Continent. SN and AF for example had already networks serving some parts of Africa, TP for example started a long african route around the coast from Lisbon to Lourenço Marques - now Maputo - flying with the C-47. This flight took 1 week and it had stops al over Africa.
AF also pioneered flights from Europe to South America in the 30's!
Regards

= This is an interesting topic ... but you MUST look at how these airlines help sustain horrific colonizations and was perhaps another tool by the colonial powers ... otherwise, these airlines would never fly to the destinations outlined above.

Cheers and good luck,
A.



Live, and let live.
User currently offlineVV701 From United Kingdom, joined Aug 2005, 7536 posts, RR: 17
Reply 21, posted (6 years 10 months 1 week 6 days 10 hours ago) and read 2402 times:



Quoting Oldeuropean (Reply 10):
Although the airlift is a important component of German post WWII history, it surely didn't change Europe and hardly could be called an airline.



Quoting Oldeuropean (Reply 14):
Isn't it a bit Germancentric to argue that it changed Europe? It was part of German history and perhaps changed Germany, but how did it change Europe?

Let's take it a stage further.

In the post World War II years European commercial aviation was dominated by national, government owned flag carriers. No one was allowed to compete with them on scheduled services. They had the market cosily tied up with governments controlling everything from flight frequencies to fares.

But the Berlin Airlift had established a new breed of ex-servicemen pilots flying ex-service transport aircraft seeking the opportunity to continue to fly. Unable to compete with the likes of BEA, BOAC, Air France and all the other national, government owned airlines - one for each country except for Denmark, Norway ans Sweden who joined together - they had to find another area to operate in. And so was born the inclusive tour holiday with so called European charter airlines flying holidaymakers from northern Europe primarily to the Mediterranean.

Cheap, inclusive tour holidays significantly changed Europe. The economies of many Mediterranean countries became heavily reliant on tourism instead of being almost entirely agrarian. Development along the coasts at places like Torremolinos and the rest of the Costa del Sol altered the entire character of the Mediterranean coastline. Sleepy fishing villages turned into vibrant tourist towns which woke up when they used to fall asleep. Bars and night clubs opened where before there was just a small occasional cafe. And in northern Europe the economies of traditional local seaside resorts such as Blackpool, Southend and Margate had to adjust as many of their previous holidaymakers flew south using the new cheap charter flights. The social and economic fall out in many parts of Europe was more than significant.

Of course it can be argued that this would all have happened without a Berlin Airlift. But it is a fact that the European charter commercial aviation business originates in the civil aircraft supplemented by sold off parts of the military fleet that sought gainful commercial use after the airlift ended.

So the ramifications of the German Airlift were not Germancentric but very wide. And they initiated almost unimaginable economic and social changes for new holiday resorts on the Mediterranean and old traditional resorts in northern Europe changing many of their residents lives for ever.


User currently offlineJewPilot From United States of America, joined Sep 2006, 110 posts, RR: 0
Reply 22, posted (6 years 10 months 1 week 6 days 7 hours ago) and read 2355 times:

Well, here's the scoop. I sincerely appreciate your help, all of you. I am going to talk to my teacher tomorrow about whether or not I can tie in some aspects (again, political, cultural, and social) of the ongoing competiton between European and North American airlines. If he says yes, I am probably going to venture down that road towards choosing a topic. But, if you choose to, I encourage you in your spare time to shout any topic on this thread that comes to mind when thinking about European airlines (and again, during/post WWII if possible). Your help has been awesome so far, so don't be shy. I know that in your lives, my project is about as relevant as a grain of sand that you walk on, but to me, your advice has kept my mind on this topic for the past few days non-stop, AND THAT'S A GOOD THING!!

JewPilot



Go Sioux!
User currently offlineCV990 From , joined Dec 1969, posts, RR:
Reply 23, posted (6 years 10 months 1 week 6 days 2 hours ago) and read 2318 times:

Hi!

Quoting Abrelosojos (Reply 20):
= This is an interesting topic ... but you MUST look at how these airlines help sustain horrific colonizations and was perhaps another tool by the colonial powers ... otherwise, these airlines would never fly to the destinations outlined above.

Colonization was a political issue mostly, it's already part of history and either we like it or hate it it's there, unfortunately! Looking merely to facts and looking into aviation perspective I think it help to develop and strong tie between Europe and Africa....being shallow I would say "without the colonialism we would probably wouldn't have any aviation infrastructures in Africa now"!
The problem in my point of view is also another, most of Africa, when the "white people" left didn't received a lot of investment, and that's why things are the way they are right now. But don't forget one point, maybe you don't know but there is a "new class" of colonisers emerging in this continent....the chinese, the indians, the middle eastern people...they are too colonizing Africa right now!!!
Regards


User currently offlineFairchild24 From Sweden, joined Jul 2007, 99 posts, RR: 0
Reply 24, posted (6 years 10 months 1 week 5 days 22 hours ago) and read 2263 times:

Another thing that changes the way of Aviation not only in Europe
is the 7 freedom of rights concerning Aviation and also Shengen, this is perhaps not
Aviation related only but it contribute to Aviation industry.
And also ECAC.

Good luck with the homework Jewpilot.

Cheers



Radial engine does not leak oil, they only mark there territory
25 OzTech : What about Britannia Airways.. They were at one point the largest charter airline in Europe.. Bringing Europe to the doorstep of 10's of 1000's of wo
26 Abrelosojos : = I am not bringing my judgement into play right now. All I am saying is that the aforementioned debate for a paper will only be strenghtened by ment
27 CV990 : Hi! Well, then all this issue about "colonization" should be there too right? Regards
28 Abrelosojos : = Not really. The OP wanted an aviation topic that changed Europe. AIRLINE links with Africa and/or others were done primarily to aid in maintaing co
29 CV990 : Hi! I'm sorry, but you were the one that brought the "colonization" issue to this topic, not me! So if you think that we cannot discuss the new-wave "
30 Abrelosojos : = I MUST try one more time because I love the fact you dont get it. Here are some logical steps to aid. Op Wants: Topic on Airlines CHANGING Europe.
31 AndyEastMids : Not really - Laker was only challenging the encumbant carriers from the UK to the USA. In the wider European context, Loftleidir was the pioneer of s
32 CV990 : Hi! Sorry mate, but politics and aviation don't match with me....so I'm not going even bother to answer what you said, simply because you keep trying
33 Dstc47 : The civil component in the Berlin Airlift was relatively modest. What about the creation of Eurocontrol and the coordination of European ATC as a sign
34 VV701 : For more than a year the small civilian component of the Berlin Airlift had been able to fly and earn a living around the clock. When the airlift fin
35 BrianDromey : I know you were hoping for 1960's etc, BUT 11/09/2001 changed the face of Europe. It pushed the LCC growth through the roof, allowed them to build exp
36 Czbbflier : I was going to post this yesterday or a couple of days ago but it's still sticking in my mind: Why not look at Airbus itself? It's yet another in a lo
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