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Why Is LH Based In FRA?  
User currently offlinedetroitflyer From United States of America, joined Oct 2006, 382 posts, RR: 0
Posted (1 year 4 months 2 days 7 hours ago) and read 15919 times:

So, ive always wondered. Frankfurt is the 4th largest city in Germany. Why did LH decide to base themselves there? Could not they have got a lot more people by basing out of Berlin, Munich, Colonge or Berlin?

Also Berlin would have been the best considering it is furthest away from other large westen hubs and the largest city in Germany?


Boiler Up!!!
70 replies: All unread, showing first 25:
 
User currently offlinecaptainmeeerkat From Russia, joined Aug 2010, 377 posts, RR: 1
Reply 1, posted (1 year 4 months 2 days 7 hours ago) and read 15927 times:

Perhaps but until 1990, don't forget that Germany was divided between East Germany and West Germany, as was Berlin. (The Berlin Wall). Very difficult to base yourself in a divided city where freedom to move freely was almost impossible.


my luggage is better travelled than me!
User currently onlineUnited1 From United States of America, joined Oct 2003, 5815 posts, RR: 9
Reply 2, posted (1 year 4 months 2 days 7 hours ago) and read 15886 times:

Quoting detroitflyer (Thread starter):
So, ive always wondered. Frankfurt is the 4th largest city in Germany

It isn't the largest city in Germany but the region FRA is part of is the financial and industrial heart of Germany. In other words LH based itself where the money was...and where business travelers wanted to fly to.



Semper Fi - PowerPoint makes us stupid.
User currently offlineLOWS From Austria, joined Oct 2011, 1064 posts, RR: 1
Reply 3, posted (1 year 4 months 2 days 7 hours ago) and read 15801 times:

Quoting detroitflyer (Thread starter):
Also Berlin would have been the best considering it is furthest away from other large westen hubs and the largest city in Germany?

Only airlines from the Ally countries were allowed to fly into Berlin during the coldwar. Interflug flew from SXF which was technically in Brandenburg, not Berlin.

Düsseldorf/Köln/Frankfurt/Stuttgart/München all developed independently during the 19th Century, since Germany wasn't united as a single country until 1871. As such, they all developed their own industries, cultures, etc.

Also, unlike Berlin, FRA is just about in the middle of the "Blue Banana" of European Population Density.


User currently offlineordwaw From United States of America, joined May 2006, 74 posts, RR: 0
Reply 4, posted (1 year 4 months 2 days 6 hours ago) and read 15717 times:

LH is actually headquarted in Cologne, the largest city of the largest industrial metropolitan area in Germany (Rhine-Ruhr).

Frankfurt am Main, which is the main LH hub, is the second largest metropolitan area and the largest financial center of the continental Europe, and also a significant commerce, cultural, transportation, and educational center. So in a sense as United1 indicated LH followed the money in choosing their main hub.

Let's not forget about MUC being another large hub, and the hub plans for the newly developed, and delayed airport in Berlin.


User currently offlinePanHAM From Germany, joined May 2005, 8736 posts, RR: 28
Reply 5, posted (1 year 4 months 2 days 6 hours ago) and read 15650 times:

As was mentioned already, Germany did not have sovereignty over Berlin (including East Berlin) until 1990.

DUS had the leading edge over FRA in he 50s and early 60s, however, Lohausen Airport was too close to the city to be developed and the then state government of Northrhine Westphalia ruled that DUS became the "propeller airport" and CGN the "jet airport". No kidding. That's our far sighted political cast. The "music" always played at DUS, which has the bigger catchment area over CGN, and over FRA as well. Today, the region can be glad they have 2 airports that complement each otrher. Plus a couple of smaller ones.

That left FRA as the logical choice, beeing at the cross roads for centuries. FRA had the first Autobahn crossing (A3 and A5) it has the largest rail terminal and, as logical as Chicago, the largest airport. It is the geographic location, combined with an immediate metropolitan aera of 5,6 million people, to which another 1,2 million come from the Mannheim/Ludwigshafen/Heidelberg area, for which it is also the closest airport. FRA is not only the center of the "Blue Banana" biut of Europe, both demographic and geographic.

The ICE train station makes it an intermodal hub, serving as a fifth runway and extedning the catchment area farther.



Quoting ordwaw (Reply 4):
Let's not forget about MUC being another large hub, and the hub plans for the newly developed, and delayed airport in Berlin.

BER will be too small to become a major hub. Maybe in 2050 when first the extension becomes rality., meanwhile, Leipzig will take over, the state government there is more efficient than those of Berlin and Brandenburg.



I'm not fishing for compliments
User currently offlineLOWS From Austria, joined Oct 2011, 1064 posts, RR: 1
Reply 6, posted (1 year 4 months 2 days 5 hours ago) and read 15502 times:

Quoting PanHAM (Reply 5):
The ICE train station makes it an intermodal hub, serving as a fifth runway and extedning the catchment area farther.

And LH adds their code to a lot of ICE services that run through FRA to Köln/Düsseldorf and Stuttgart


User currently offlinerwy04lga From United States of America, joined Jul 2005, 3103 posts, RR: 8
Reply 7, posted (1 year 4 months 2 days 5 hours ago) and read 15453 times:

New York City is North America's largest city but only JetBlue is HQ'd there (I think. C'mon, I just woke up). All of the other big players are HQ'd elsewhere.


Just accept that some days, you're the pigeon, and other days the statue
User currently offlineAlsatian From France, joined May 2005, 412 posts, RR: 0
Reply 8, posted (1 year 4 months 2 days 4 hours ago) and read 15195 times:

Quoting detroitflyer (Thread starter):
Frankfurt is the 4th largest city in Germany

Right but FRA is also serving population living in Darmstadt, Wiesbaden, Mainz, Mannheim, Heidelberg, Koblenz, Würzburg, Bonn, Cologne, Karlsruhe, Stuttgart, Kaiserslautern, Saarbrucken, Strasbourg...



Ok I am French but I am not on strike
User currently offlineZRH From Switzerland, joined Nov 1999, 5564 posts, RR: 37
Reply 9, posted (1 year 4 months 2 days 3 hours ago) and read 15000 times:

Quoting detroitflyer (Thread starter):

So, ive always wondered. Frankfurt is the 4th largest city in Germany. Why did LH decide to base themselves there? Could not they have got a lot more people by basing out of Berlin, Munich, Colonge or Berlin?

Also Berlin would have been the best considering it is furthest away from other large westen hubs and the largest city in Germany?

History! LH was not allowed to fly to Berlin until 1989 when the iron curtain fell. Till then only the four occupying forces were to fly to Berlin (US, GB, France and Soviet Union). In the times before 1989 PanAm flew the routes between Berlin and the Federal Republic of Germany and many other Western Countries as also to ZRH where I live. They had plenty of 727 based in Europe.


User currently offlineZRH From Switzerland, joined Nov 1999, 5564 posts, RR: 37
Reply 10, posted (1 year 4 months 2 days 3 hours ago) and read 14981 times:

Quoting captainmeeerkat (Reply 1):
all). Very difficult to base yourself in a divided city where freedom to move freely was almost impossible.

As I said in my post above: it was not "almost impossible". Is wasn't allowed for LH.


User currently offlinerwy04lga From United States of America, joined Jul 2005, 3103 posts, RR: 8
Reply 11, posted (1 year 4 months 2 days 3 hours ago) and read 14980 times:

Quoting ZRH (Reply 9):
1989 when the iron curtain fell

That's when it was lifted. It's the Berlin Wall that fell.



Just accept that some days, you're the pigeon, and other days the statue
User currently offlineZRH From Switzerland, joined Nov 1999, 5564 posts, RR: 37
Reply 12, posted (1 year 4 months 2 days 3 hours ago) and read 14949 times:

Quoting rwy04lga (Reply 11):
That's when it was lifted. It's the Berlin Wall that fell.

Ok, ok. That's a bit hairsplitting. Actually the the iron curtain was not "lifted". There was much pressure in Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland and other countries that it made fall.


User currently offlineordwaw From United States of America, joined May 2006, 74 posts, RR: 0
Reply 13, posted (1 year 4 months 2 days 2 hours ago) and read 14838 times:

Quoting ZRH (Reply 9):
Till then only the four occupying forces were to fly to Berlin (US, GB, France and Soviet Union)

Also, around 1983-1984, every 2-3 months a domestic LOT AN-24 would fly to THF, hijacked by desperate people trying to flee to the West. If they succeded to land in West Berlin, they would then ask for a polytical asylum.

This got to the point that for quite some time, on every domestic flight within Poland, there were 2-3 special forces commandos in the cabin constantly monitoring the passengers.


User currently offlinena From Germany, joined Dec 1999, 10358 posts, RR: 11
Reply 14, posted (1 year 4 months 2 days 2 hours ago) and read 14774 times:

1. Frankfurt is, roughly, in the middle of the country.
2. Its the center of one of the two most important business areas in Germany.
3. the Frankfurt region infrastructure and connectivity is very good.
There are no real alternatives in Germany for the location of the center of aviation. Berlin is located "in the middle of nowhere" in the East, Munich in the extreme South, Hamburg in very North and Cologne probably too far West.


User currently onlinerutankrd From United Kingdom, joined Sep 2003, 2801 posts, RR: 7
Reply 15, posted (1 year 4 months 2 days 2 hours ago) and read 14751 times:
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Quoting detroitflyer (Thread starter):

So, ive always wondered. Frankfurt is the 4th largest city in Germany. Why did LH decide to base themselves there? Could not they have got a lot more people by basing out of Berlin, Munich, Colonge or Berlin?

Also Berlin would have been the best considering it is furthest away from other large westen hubs and the largest city in Germany?

You need to read your history post WW2 to understand why the FRG is as it is and the influence on the development of Frankfurt/Bonn/Dusseldorf/Hannover corridor added to some historically important industrial considerations - Coal/Steel etc....

Add the very fact that German states have a greater sense of independence from the Federal Government (Similar to the US in some ways) and quite unique within the EU.

Add the fact that Germany post WW2 was divided - NOT just Berlin between the
UK North Zone - centred around Hannover
US Zone - Centred on Frankfurt !
France- very small area cross border buffer
USSR - that became to quasi state of DDR.
It really is quite complex and insightful.

Lufthansa combined with Frankfurt as both transport and banking hub are a product of these geopolitical issues.
For 40 years the West German axis lines were North/South - Hamburg to Stuttgart with spur west to the French border.

Berlin was NOT part of this.

Fact is Berlin remains rather an island far to far east for most of the German populous - Statement of fact its just 50 miles from Poland and more than 150 miles from Hanover (nearest major - pre unification city)


User currently offlineordwaw From United States of America, joined May 2006, 74 posts, RR: 0
Reply 16, posted (1 year 4 months 2 days 1 hour ago) and read 14619 times:

Quoting rutankrd (Reply 15):
Fact is Berlin remains rather an island far to far east for most of the German populous - Statement of fact its just 50 miles from Poland and more than 150 miles from Hanover (nearest major - pre unification city)

Interesting ... Now it makes sense why the newly being built BER airport may steal more traffic from WAW than from MUC or FRA as it located closer to many western Polish cities than WAW.


User currently offlinePanHAM From Germany, joined May 2005, 8736 posts, RR: 28
Reply 17, posted (1 year 4 months 2 days 1 hour ago) and read 14570 times:

Quoting ordwaw (Reply 13):
Also, around 1983-1984, every 2-3 months a domestic LOT AN-24 would fly to THF,

That's why. in these days, they spelled LOT "landed och Tempelhof" (lands also at Tempelhof)

Quoting rutankrd (Reply 15):
Add the fact that Germany post WW2 was divided - NOT just Berlin between the

That ended already in 1949, when the 1949 with the constitution of the parliament, the first free elected government and the independent judiciary, the 3 "west sectors" formed the federal reüpublic of Germany which received partial spovereignty in 1955. That partial sovereignty included the right to establish an airline under the German flag., Lufthansa nwas founded that year.

Long distance flights usually went from DUS, HAM and FRA to a lesser extend. FRA really took off in the 60s, read my post # 5

Only with the 4 + 2 negotiations and the resulting treaty signed in 1990, the Federal Republic of Germany becane a fully sovereign state.

By that time, FRA was long time established as the main hub for LH.

The reason for FRA is location, as said in post # 5, the airport is close to the demo- and geographic centre of Europe, not only Germany. Hence, it is the ideal place for a hub.



I'm not fishing for compliments
User currently offlineC010T3 From Brazil, joined Jul 2006, 3651 posts, RR: 19
Reply 18, posted (1 year 4 months 2 days 1 hour ago) and read 14516 times:

Quoting ordwaw (Reply 16):
Now it makes sense why the newly being built BER airport may steal more traffic from WAW than from MUC or FRA as it located closer to many western Polish cities than WAW.

Well, if that indeed happens, it would Berlin reconquering its catchment area. One of the reasons Berlin is having difficulty regaining its economic force is the fact it's missing the German territory lost to Poland.


User currently offlinePanHAM From Germany, joined May 2005, 8736 posts, RR: 28
Reply 19, posted (1 year 4 months 2 days 1 hour ago) and read 14415 times:

Quoting C010T3 (Reply 18):
Well, if that indeed happens, it would Berlin reconquering its catchment area. One of the reasons Berlin is having difficulty regaining its economic force is the fact it's missing the German territory lost to Poland.

Thanks to the European Union and the Schengen zone the hinterland is there again. But that hinterland never was really industrialized. Berlin was, but likely will never regain that strenght.

Fact is, traffic figures at BER gain almost twice the German average, but a lot of thzat is low yield traffic. Unlike their airports, BER is open for parties 24 hours seven days a week and that attracts young people from all over the world.

That is not much high yield traffic however and therefore really no good substance for a hub.

Besides, I say it again, Berlins location is too far from the centre.

In Germany, the cookie crumbles elsewhere, and that can be small places in areas between the big population centres.

Unlike France and the UK, Germany is polycentric.



I'm not fishing for compliments
User currently onlinerutankrd From United Kingdom, joined Sep 2003, 2801 posts, RR: 7
Reply 20, posted (1 year 4 months 2 days 1 hour ago) and read 14345 times:
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Quoting C010T3 (Reply 18):
Well, if that indeed happens, it would Berlin reconquering its catchment area. One of the reasons Berlin is having difficulty regaining its economic force is the fact it's missing the German territory lost to Poland.

The Western creep of the Polish borders in and of itself is an interesting debate but for another forum i think !

Quoting PanHAM (Reply 17):
That ended already in 1949, when the 1949 with the constitution of the parliament

True the civil FRG constitutions date back to that time frame however the military control zones pretty much remained in situ under NATO and these certainly influenced the development of the FRG for those 40 odd years up until re-unification.

Hey FRA itself was a major USAF transportation base not so long ago.


User currently onlinerutankrd From United Kingdom, joined Sep 2003, 2801 posts, RR: 7
Reply 21, posted (1 year 4 months 2 days ago) and read 14286 times:
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Quoting PanHAM (Reply 19):
Besides, I say it again, Berlins location is too far from the centre.

In Germany, the cookie crumbles elsewhere, and that can be small places in areas between the big population centres.

Unlike France and the UK, Germany is polycentric.

Thats the plain truth isn't it !

Germany is made up of a series of strong identifiable states (Old principalities and duchies) and hasn't had to deal with centralising forces of the UK (Single monarchy and parliament) or France (Napoleonic grand design) !


User currently offlineMD11Engineer From Germany, joined Oct 2003, 13792 posts, RR: 63
Reply 22, posted (1 year 4 months 2 days ago) and read 14225 times:

Quoting PanHAM (Reply 5):

That left FRA as the logical choice, beeing at the cross roads for centuries. FRA had the first Autobahn crossing (A3 and A5) it has the largest rail terminal and, as logical as Chicago, the largest airport. It is the geographic location, combined with an immediate metropolitan aera of 5,6 million people, to which another 1,2 million come from the Mannheim/Ludwigshafen/Heidelberg area, for which it is also the closest airport. FRA is not only the center of the "Blue Banana" biut of Europe, both demographic and geographic.

Don´t forget that in 1945 Frankfurt was one of the few German airports equipped with a concrete runway. Most German airfields back then, both military and civilian, had grass runways.
Frankfurt Luftwaffe base was used to operate the Messerschmitt Me262 jet fighter, which needed a hard surface runway. The runway was built by female concentration camp prisoners from Ravensbrück, who were housed in a satellite camp in what today is the little forest between Frankfurt airport and the town Walldorf-Mörfelden.
After VE day, the Americans needed hard runways for their increasingly heavier transport aircaft (C-54, C-97 etc.) and used the existing former Luftwaffe airfield and later extened it to become their main airbase in occupied Germany (Rhein-Main-Airbase). Civilan airlines, like Pan Am, set up their own part on the airbase. When Western Germany regained her souvereignity to operate civilian aircraft again in 1956, Lufthansa was allowed to start a civilian operation using the now existing civilian facilities in FRA:

Jan


User currently offlineFreshSide3 From United States of America, joined Nov 2012, 213 posts, RR: 0
Reply 23, posted (1 year 4 months 2 days ago) and read 14130 times:

It's going to be a while to see what happens with Berlin. The new airport opening has been delayed due to the fact they didn't meet fire codes. Also, for those in Germany(that might know), just curious about the noise abatement situation in BER.......LH has stopped late night cargo flights due to the noise issues in FRA.........is BER better situated to for this to allow late night flying??

User currently offlinePanHAM From Germany, joined May 2005, 8736 posts, RR: 28
Reply 24, posted (1 year 4 months 2 days ago) and read 14123 times:

Quoting rutankrd (Reply 20):
True the civil FRG constitutions date back to that time frame however the military control zones pretty much remained in situ under NATO and these certainly influenced the development of the FRG for those 40 odd years up until re-unification.

I explained that by this:

Quoting PanHAM (Reply 17):

Only with the 4 + 2 negotiations and the resulting treaty signed in 1990, the Federal Republic of Germany becane a fully sovereign state.
Quoting rutankrd (Reply 20):
Hey FRA itself was a major USAF transportation base not so long ago.
Quoting rutankrd (Reply 20):
Hey FRA itself was a major USAF transportation base not so long ago.

until Fraport bought out the USAF by financing a new runway and other things at Ramstein . Honestly, I miss the C-5s and the C-17 here.

Quoting MD11Engineer (Reply 22):
Lufthansa was allowed to start a civilian operation using the now existing civilian facilities in FRA:

[quote=MD11Engineer,reply=22]Lufthansa was allowed to start a civilian operation using the now existing civilian facilities in FRA:[/quote

Well, by then HAM,DUS;MUC etc had paved runways as well.



I'm not fishing for compliments
25 rutankrd : No it isn't - Berlin is hopeless as a European cargo hub since most of the arriving and departing cargo is destined for the industries along the Ruhr
26 rutankrd : We are not in disagreement ! You and me both. At trip to the forests to spy those birds these days !
27 FreshSide3 : Keep in mind that Bonn used to be the capital, and CGN airport was often referred to as "Cologne/Bonn".
28 PanHAM : It still is,the official airport for both Bonn and Cologne. Howeverm the traffic is at DUS, more than twice the passenger number than CGN has. The lo
29 Post contains images EPA001 : Let's not forget Eindhoven airport which is currently growing quite spectacularly. . As to why LH has it's strongest base in FRA, that question has b
30 Post contains images LOWS : Because that would involve having to be in Frankfurt? But seriously, why move? Cologne is not that far from Frankfurt. 45minutes or so with the ICE f
31 Post contains images rwy04lga : Reminds me of a joke I heard years ago. A 747 pulls off the runway and taxis past a C-5. Seeing the smaller 747, the C-5 CO asks 'Hey little buddy, w
32 PanHAM : The operational base is at FRA, the CEO has an office at FRA and AFAIK a CGN office as well. The technical base is at HAM. The top people are constant
33 Post contains images Quokkas : The arguments for a base in FRA today are clear. But my memory isn't. So I appeal to those who have a better memory to help out. Lufthansa began fligh
34 ZRH : No I don't think so. Christoph Franz lived in Zurich and had a hard time to leave when he became LH CEO.
35 TWA772LR : In a way, this is kind of like saying "why isn't American airline X based in New York?" The answer is, you have to follow the money. And if it aint br
36 PanHAM : One flight was operated HAM-MUC and the other MUC-HAM with a stop , not sure right now if that stop was at FRA or DUS. Not true that the intercont se
37 Quokkas : At its simplest, yes. However, it doesn't answer the question of how or why LH decided the money was at FRA rather than HAM, which was their first ch
38 Post contains images flyingturtle : A more interesting question is why SWISS is owned by LH and headquartered in France... David
39 ordwaw : Is it really? According to wikipedia ... Swiss is a subsidiary of the German airline Lufthansa, with headquarters at EuroAirport Basel-Mulhouse-Freib
40 Post contains images Rara : Lots and lots of misconceptions in this thread! Back then, Germany was in shambles, had just lost the war, the future borders of the country were tota
41 YULWinterSkies : Could it be because Switzerland is neither in the eurozone nor the EU? Also, Zurich is among the world's most expensive cities, Geneva not quite far
42 Post contains images Quokkas : Hi PanHAM and thank you for taking the time to respond. I appreciate your helping with my understanding of the establishment, growth and development o
43 Post contains images CiC : Guys, you all forget a very important fact- you're all talking about postwar time... In the late 30ies Berlin became one of the world's greatest hubs,
44 Post contains links and images flyingturtle : It ran like this: - Swissair was headquartered at Balsberg/Kloten near Zurich. Clearly on Swiss territory. - Crossair was headquartered at the BSL ai
45 PanHAM : I think the term "hub" did not even exoist at that time, at least not in relation toi aviation. Flying was for a few people only, pleasure flying how
46 Post contains images Quokkas : Thanks for the additional insight. You response appeared as I was still composing a response to Pan HAM. I appreciate politics was central to the que
47 PHX Flyer : Frankfurt is not the fourth-largest city in Germany, Cologne is. Frankfurt is a distant #7. The decision to base Lufthansa ops in Frankfurt was made
48 Quokkas : While LH had flights to FRA as early as 1955, it was not based there. As has been already established, LH's first active base and the location of its
49 Post contains links ATL : Just look at the population density of Germany: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedi...ns/6/6e/Pop_density_of_Germany.png See how isolated Berlin is?
50 MD11Engineer : Actually the centralist policies of France go back to Louis XIV, who in his youth had constant trouble with the independent barons, counts and dukes,
51 rutankrd : Egotistic narcissistic and mad man that wouldn't die but that's not important to this debate !
52 Post contains links and images lastrow : Well, I think the Adenauer story is not official, but I have heard that too. The German government decided between Frankfurt and Bonn (there were oth
53 skywaymanaz : Before WW II didn't the Zeppelin company airships depart from Frankfurt as well? The Hindenburg departed from there on her infamous final flight. Also
54 PHX Flyer : Lufthansa at that time was a government-owned airline. As such it aimed to benefit the entire West German population - by the people, for the people
55 RayChuang : I think in the end it came down to this: by the early 1950's the rapidly rebuilding city of Frankfurt had become again the financial and transportatio
56 PanHAM : That was politically instrumented by a dictatorship. Aviantion then was in its infancy, not driven by economics yet. It is all documented, The first
57 PanHAM : I find a single sentence in the chronic, under 1960 - "Frankfurt is meanwhile the base for he intercont traffic". That happened with the opening of th
58 MD11Engineer : Actually it started in the 1920s with the DeRuLuft. Jan
59 BommerJan : Frankfurt is actually Germany's 5th largest city by population. Frankfurt became Germany's most important airport because of its central location wit
60 PanHAM : Some interesting statistical facts about metro area population: FRA 5,52 mio Mannheim-Ludwigshafen 2,36 Mio (can be added to FRA) STR 5,29 mio (shows
61 Semaex : Very true, and since the US had the overall control over most activities in the zones, their prime hub Frankfurt was the center of Germany in many re
62 magyar : It is actually good to see the cold-war division of Europe fading into history so much that younger people already do not understand its consequences
63 C010T3 : The airport certainly enhanced that position, but Frankfurt had once the largest railway station in Europe. The importance, therefore, was already th
64 Semaex : That is very true, but looking at the historic data for example, both the Autobahn A3 and A5, which cross at Frankfurt Airport, are built at the same
65 DolphinAir747 : Well, a few reasons, but remember that airlines generally try to please high-yielding business travellers most of all with regard to schedules and des
66 PanHAM : Frankfurt is not the economic capital of Germany. Frankfurt is the geographic and demographiuc centre and therefore a natural hub location. I said it
67 racko : Frankfurt has been a major trade, transportation and financial hub since the middle ages...
68 dazeflight : Such as Leipzig, which had the bigger airport and the bigger trade fair before WW2. Compare the cities economy-whise today, please. Frankfurt was alw
69 PanHAM : FRA and LEJ always have been "mirror" cities. Pre war, Leipzig had the biggest train station as well and it was not only thje book fair that moved to
70 racko : Leipzig's problem wasn't the lack of an airport, it was being in the GDR. Every West-German city benefitted from being in the West while all Eastern c
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