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Parts Of The Wing Going Supersonic. Why? How?  
User currently offlineMastropiero From Spain, joined Dec 2005, 125 posts, RR: 0
Posted (5 years 2 months 2 weeks 4 days 10 hours ago) and read 3605 times:

So, I´ve read in lots of threads about parts of the wing going supersonic and I really don´t get it. How is it possible that parts of a rather large piece of metal that flies sub-sonic can reach supersonic speed?

6 replies: All unread, jump to last
 
User currently offlinePilotpip From United States of America, joined Sep 2003, 3144 posts, RR: 11
Reply 1, posted (5 years 2 months 2 weeks 4 days 10 hours ago) and read 3601 times:

As air goes over the top of a wing, it accelerates. If you're going .80 mach, it's possible that some of that air will be going faster than mach 1.

I'm sure some of the engineering types around here can give a much more detailed explanation.



DMI
User currently offlineYWG From Canada, joined Feb 2001, 1146 posts, RR: 2
Reply 2, posted (5 years 2 months 2 weeks 4 days 10 hours ago) and read 3599 times:

Some turbine prop tips have been known to go supersonic too. The idea is the the tip is farther away from the hub and thus has a greater distance (radius) to travel in the same amount of time as the root of the wing. Thus the Tip has to travel faster.


Contact Winnipeg center now on 134.4, good day.
User currently offlineFredT From United Kingdom, joined Feb 2002, 2185 posts, RR: 26
Reply 3, posted (5 years 2 months 2 weeks 4 days 6 hours ago) and read 3513 times:

It is not part of the wing going supersonic. It is the airflow over part of the wing going supersonic.

Cheers,
/Fred



I thought I was doing good trying to avoid those airport hotels... and look at me now.
User currently offlineAirbuske From United States of America, joined Jun 2007, 466 posts, RR: 0
Reply 4, posted (5 years 2 months 2 weeks 4 days 5 hours ago) and read 3498 times:



Quoting Pilotpip (Reply 1):
As air goes over the top of a wing, it accelerates. If you're going .80 mach, it's possible that some of that air will be going faster than mach 1.

 checkmark 

Two technical terms must be understood :

freestream mach number : mach number of the undistrubed airflow that lies far ahead of the body that is moving through the air.

local mach number : mach number of the disturbed airflow that lies close to the body that is moving through the air.

The Mach number displayed on the flight display in the cockpit or in a sales brochure is the freestream mach number. It is the mach number of the undisturbed airflow far ahead of the entire aircraft.

Logically, the freestream mach number of the entire aircraft is the free stream mach number of a particular segment of the aircraft, like say, the wing. As Pilotpip explained, due to conservation of mass, over parts of the upper surface of the wing, the air is moving faster than the "surrounding" freestream air. i.e. the local mach number is greater than the freestream mach number.

This is why even though the pilot reads that the airplane is flying at Mach 0.8, certain parts of the wing will most definately be travelling at speeds greater than Mach 0.8 (not necessarily supersonic).

For a simple to understand yet techinally correct explanation of why this is so, please read the following article written by my favourite professor.

http://www.df.uba.ar/users/sgil/phys...s/fluids/Bernoulli_Newton_lift.pdf


User currently offlineAirbuske From United States of America, joined Jun 2007, 466 posts, RR: 0
Reply 5, posted (5 years 2 months 2 weeks 4 days 5 hours ago) and read 3493 times:



Quoting FredT (Reply 3):
It is not part of the wing going supersonic. It is the airflow over part of the wing going supersonic.

Ahhh, I can see why the original poster might have been confused by the whole idea.


User currently offlineVikkyvik From United States of America, joined Jul 2003, 9763 posts, RR: 27
Reply 6, posted (5 years 2 months 2 weeks 4 days 5 hours ago) and read 3493 times:
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Quoting Pilotpip (Reply 1):
As air goes over the top of a wing, it accelerates. If you're going .80 mach, it's possible that some of that air will be going faster than mach 1.

I'm sure some of the engineering types around here can give a much more detailed explanation.

There's actually not much more detail to give  Smile

To understand this phenomenon, understand that a wing produces lift (without getting into the other ways of modeling it) by having a lower pressure on the upper surface, and a (relatively) higher pressure on the lower surface of the wing. A pressure differential multiplied by an area equals a force.

When moving air goes through a pressure decrease, it gains speed (and vice versa). So the air going over the top of the wing gains speed and loses pressure.

When an aircraft is moving fast enough, the increase in speed of the airflow over the top of the wing will be enough for the airflow to start going supersonic.



"Two and a Half Men" was filmed in front of a live ostrich.
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