davescj From United States of America, joined Jun 2007, 2320 posts, RR: 0 Posted (5 years 5 months 4 weeks 9 hours ago) and read 8901 times:
As we all know, planes are taken out for service, upgrade, MX issues, etc. After all, if a plane is in the shop, goes mx, etc. something has to sub for it. So how much 'wiggle' room is there in fleet usage? What made me start to think about it DL's upgrading the 767 fleet, so while one is being updated with the new flat seats, some other plane has to fly the route.
Kcrwflyer From United States of America, joined May 2004, 3949 posts, RR: 7
Reply 1, posted (5 years 5 months 4 weeks 8 hours ago) and read 8743 times:
It depends on the season and fleet size. I've seen upwards of 20 DL jets sitting at ATL and not flying... whether or not they're quickly flyable is another question. On the other end of the spectrum you may see 1 AirTran plane sitting in ATL or MCO for the day.
LAXtoATL From United States of America, joined Oct 2009, 1863 posts, RR: 2
Reply 2, posted (5 years 5 months 4 weeks 7 hours ago) and read 8684 times:
Quoting Kcrwflyer (Reply 1): It depends on the season and fleet size. I've seen upwards of 20 DL jets sitting at ATL and not flying...
It also depends on the airline's scheduling of the fleets. Just because airplanes are sitting idle at an airport does not necessarily mean it is a spare. Sometimes airplanes have downtime between flights. This is where you always here about an airline's fleet utilization.
To answer the OP's question, it varies between each airline and even at the same airline you are likely to have different answers for each fleet.
jetlagged From United Kingdom, joined Jan 2005, 2620 posts, RR: 25
Reply 4, posted (5 years 5 months 2 days 20 hours ago) and read 7240 times:
In theory you could calculate the number of spare aircraft required from the amount of time each one spends in scheduled maintenance compared to the amount of time it is available for operations. If an airliner is available 90% of the time, that means if the airline needs a fleet of 9 such aircraft for operations they would need to own 10. In practice there are other factors to allow for such as:
Some scheduled maintenance happens overnight so the aircraft is still available for normal operations.
The number of aircraft required for operations is seasonal.
Allowance has to be made for unplanned maintenance.
The airline may have another fleet which can provide suitable substitutes.
Of course if it's an RR powered A380 fleet you might be better off with a crystal ball.
The glass isn't half empty, or half full, it's twice as big as it needs to be.
RoseFlyer From United States of America, joined Feb 2004, 11166 posts, RR: 52
Reply 7, posted (5 years 5 months 1 day 13 hours ago) and read 7007 times:
I use to deal with this when I worked at an airline in reliability, so I will speak from experience. It all depends on fleet size. There are two types of spare aircraft. There is a hot spare sitting on the ground and there is a virtual spare.
A hot spare is an airplane that is on the ground for an extended sit that is available to take over and fly any route. Typically an aircraft might spend 24 hours after scheduled maintenance as a spare before it enters the fleet. With airplanes continuously coming out of most rotate as a spare aircraft. These are usually positioned where maintenance is done. At DL, ATL is the focal point. At AA, DFW is likely. At UA, ORD & SFO are where spares often are.
The second type of spare is a virtual spare. Some airlines use this concept. It consists of routing an airplane specifically between destinations so that it can cover a more important flight. For example, UA had a 747 flight from SFO-ORD in the morning. That plane could be a spare for any of the afternoon 747 departures out of ORD. If it is not needed, then the plane flies back to SFO so it is available to cover evening SYD flight or the morning departures to Asia the next day. The SFO-ORD-SFO flight is willing to be sacrificed or downgauged so that they have a spare 747.
To get the real answer, for an international fleet (of less than 40 planes), most airlines have about 2 spare aircraft during peak season. Winter season has more spares since the schedule usually reduces flying. The spares can be used to cover charters or to cover in case an airplane goes out of service. They are also used to cover special maintenance visits such as cabin refurbishments or painting during slow season. For narrowbodies, the spare count usually varies a lot. For a large sized narrowbody fleet, spares will range 2~6 airplanes. It depends on how maintenance is being performed. Some days have more spares than others. Narrowbody spares counts are comparatively less than widebody since a narrowbody cancellation causes less pain to an airline. Reliability analysis staff at airlines try to match the spares count to the out of service count with a little buffer. If the out of service count gets higher than the spare count on a regular basis, it is time to change the schedule or find a way to get more planes.
The final way to get spare aircraft is to use swaps. At a hub, planes can be continually swapped between flights to minimize delays if one plane goes out of service or if it is restricted (for example if the plane goes out of ETOPS limits due to some mechanical reasons). This actually can allow flights not to get canceled when one plane is out. The airline can essentially operate a full schedule with fewer aircraft than required. The sacrifice is delays. For this reason, you never want to be on the last flight out of a hub at night, especially to an international destination. The airline might have expected a plane to get fixed during the day, but if maintenance could not fix it, the last flight will cancel.
Quoting HAWK21M (Reply 3):
If 100% fleet is flying & getting the minimum load for that sector....The Airline is doing well.
While I typically respect your opinion, that's not necessarily a good thing. You want a little gap between typical out of service and spares. Continental in the US typically schedules its widebodies tighter than anyone else and as a result has a higher airplane reliability cancellation rate.
If the fleet is scheduled too tight, a long duration damage event such as an airplane clipping another can cause rippling cancellations since it eats away at the spares. Airlines can do all they want to ensure airplanes don't get damaged and taken out of service for weeks, but it does and always will happen.
If you have never designed an airplane part before, let the real designers do the work!