Sponsor Message:
Aviation Technical / Operations Forum
My Starred Topics | Profile | New Topic | Forum Index | Help | Search 
How Are Boarding Times Determined?  
User currently offlineAlnessW From United States of America, joined Jun 2010, 620 posts, RR: 1
Posted (2 years 4 months 2 weeks 13 hours ago) and read 5456 times:

The amount of time given for a flight to board seems to vary greatly. For a "typical" US domestic narrowbody flight, the standard seems to be 30 minutes. But my recent UA flights boarded 45 minutes prior to departure...

How are these and other times determined? Here are a few ways I can think of:

International flights and/or widebodies seem to board much earlier, as there are simply more people traveling. I assume that this is also because the gate agents need extra time to check passports, etc.

RJ flights seem to board with less time. Last year I was on a UA Express flight SFO-PDX (on the old UA) and they boarded 20 minutes prior to departure. This would make sense as there are simply fewer people to process. But just a few weeks ago I was on another UA Express flight PDX-SFO (on the new UA) and they were scheduled to board 35 minutes prior to departure! Why would a RJ need 35 minutes to board? (But of course, they didn't actually start boarding and didn't make any announcements whatsoever about SFO delays until 15 minutes before we were scheduled to leave...)

So... How are boarding times determined? I'm not really looking for personal stories here, but rather technical factors as to how a flight's scheduled boarding time is calculated. Thanks!   

21 replies: All unread, jump to last
 
User currently offlineCitationJet From United States of America, joined Mar 2003, 2432 posts, RR: 3
Reply 1, posted (2 years 4 months 1 week 6 days 21 hours ago) and read 5341 times:

Quoting AlnessW (Thread starter):
they were scheduled to board 35 minutes prior to departure!

When you say they were "scheduled" to board, are you referring to the time posted on the gate departure board, when the gate agent verbally announces when they will begin boarding, or the boarding time posted on your boarding pass?
I believe these are general guidelines, and in reality they usually start boarding after these posted times have passed, either due to late inbound flight, or the aircraft not being cleaned and is not ready for boarding passengers.



Boeing Flown: 701,702,703;717;720;721,722;731,732,733,734,735,737,738,739;741,742,743,744,747SP;752,753;762,763;772,773.
User currently offlinechuchoteur From France, joined Sep 2006, 763 posts, RR: 0
Reply 2, posted (2 years 4 months 1 week 6 days 21 hours ago) and read 5334 times:

http://www.airbus.com/support/airport-operations/library/

Check out the airport compatibility manuals.

http://www.airbus.com/fileadmin/medi.../Airbus_AC_A320_20110501_Apr11.pdf
Page 157 of the A320 airport planning manual shows the boarding/deboarding rates that Airbus recommends (for example).

Those are (I believe) demonstrated values.

Boeing has equivalent documentation:
http://www.boeing.com/commercial/airports/plan_manuals.html

737:
http://www.boeing.com/commercial/airports/acaps/737sec5.pdf

CH 5.2.5 shows planing/deplaning flows


User currently offlineKELPkid From United States of America, joined Nov 2005, 6370 posts, RR: 3
Reply 3, posted (2 years 4 months 1 week 6 days 20 hours ago) and read 5308 times:

Quoting AlnessW (Thread starter):
RJ flights seem to board with less time. Last year I was on a UA Express flight SFO-PDX (on the old UA) and they boarded 20 minutes prior to departure.

They might have allotted this flight more time because SFO-PDX on UA connects with lots of TransPac flights at SFO. I wouldn't be suprised if many of the passengers on your flight were actually making international connections in San Francisco. International passengers are allotted more baggage   



Celebrating the birth of KELPkidJR on August 5, 2009 :-)
User currently offlineFabo From Slovakia, joined Aug 2005, 1219 posts, RR: 1
Reply 4, posted (2 years 4 months 1 week 6 days 2 hours ago) and read 5154 times:

Airlines, especially those with some tradition, have a lot of empirical data to build on. They can base off the recommended typical times, as outlined for ex. in the Airbus manual, and build up on them depending on destination, day of the week, typical traveller, airport layout, time of the day etc.

As an example - flight to Hawaii will take longer to board because of all the vacation goers, baggage, pax being unfamilair etc. Same 767 doing London-Paris would be more or less business types, travelling light, knowing how to be orderly.

If the airplane is at a jetway gate, you have to assume pax are in the aircraft as soon as boarding is started. If in the fields, you have to make some time for them to get out, board the bus, take a scenic tour of the airport... in the extreme example, you know FR takes 25 minutes to turn around a 738. There are actually cases that boarding is readied when airplane is not even on final approach yet.

The passenger mix is different on wednesday mid-morning flight than it is on saturday early afternoon flight, etc...

Gate agents might also delay or move the boarding earlier if they see some specific groups in the mix - if you see that a children choir booked half the aircraft, you know you need to board sooner, because they will take their time...



The light at the end of tunnel turn out to be a lighted sing saying NO EXIT
User currently offlineSchorschNG From Germany, joined Sep 2010, 500 posts, RR: 0
Reply 5, posted (2 years 4 months 1 week 5 days 21 hours ago) and read 5093 times:

Data from the manufacturers is more a joke than any useful guidance. The time to board varies strongly with load factor, passenger population, luggage density. The type is less of a factor.
Most airlines use experience.
Any many airlines experience boarding as a huge burden as turnaround is the only time period where you can make time good on your schedule. Speeding with .81 instead of .78 on a 500nm trip doesn't win anything except a higher fuel bill.



From a structural standpoint, passengers are the worst possible payload. [Michael Chun-Yung Niu]
User currently offlinePihero From France, joined Jan 2005, 4402 posts, RR: 76
Reply 6, posted (2 years 4 months 1 week 5 days 21 hours ago) and read 5087 times:

Quoting AlnessW (Thread starter):
How are these and other times determined?

Ground handling of an airplane is a fine art that involves a lot of people and quite a few services.
That's why most airlines have some standards laid out in the form of "Punctuality sheets", "Standards and chronology guidelines", the names vary but the principles are the same : everybody, every department participating in the turn-around are involved and have to follow some rather strict set of timings.
On these sheets, in which H-hour is the scheduled departure time (from the gate ) (example is for a long-haul widebody) :
- Cabin cleaning and catering uplift completed at H-45
- Passenger boarding call at that moment... First pax on-board at H-40... ... Doors closed at H-4 ... ... Cargo doors closed at H-3.
For a single-aisle aircraft, Boarding call is at H-30, with the first pax boarding 5 minutes later.
Of course a different sheet will be used for an aircraft away from a contact gate and the ramp coordinator is supposed to work his chronology from the travel time taken by the coaches from the terminal to the apron..
Nothing should be left to chance or personal improvisation.

[Edited 2012-04-11 10:43:09]


Contrail designer
User currently offlineAlnessW From United States of America, joined Jun 2010, 620 posts, RR: 1
Reply 7, posted (2 years 4 months 1 week 5 days 21 hours ago) and read 5072 times:

Quoting CitationJet (Reply 1):
When you say they were "scheduled" to board, are you referring to the time posted on the gate departure board, when the gate agent verbally announces when they will begin boarding, or the boarding time posted on your boarding pass?


I was referring to the time printed on the boarding pass. Sorry I didn't specify there.

Quoting CitationJet (Reply 1):
I believe these are general guidelines, and in reality they usually start boarding after these posted times have passed, either due to late inbound flight, or the aircraft not being cleaned and is not ready for boarding passengers.


That seems to be the case, for me anyways...

Quoting chuchoteur (Reply 2):


Thank you for sharing those links. Interesting info!

Quoting KELPkid (Reply 3):
They might have allotted this flight more time because SFO-PDX on UA connects with lots of TransPac flights at SFO. I wouldn't be suprised if many of the passengers on your flight were actually making international connections in San Francisco.


I'm not sure about that. We were scheduled to arrive at 9:33 at night. (Though didn't actually arrive until 10:30 thanks to the usual SFO delays.   ) Do you know what SFO connections are like around that time of day on a Saturday?

Quoting Fabo (Reply 4):
As an example - flight to Hawaii will take longer to board because of all the vacation goers, baggage, pax being unfamilair etc.


We can't assume that though. I mean, I understand that airlines need SOMETHING to go off of, but to make a gross assumption like the one above is simply wrong. Just because there are families traveling together doesn't necessarily mean that they are "inexperienced."

Quoting Fabo (Reply 4):
Same 767 doing London-Paris would be more or less business types, travelling light, knowing how to be orderly.


See my comments above. "Business" does not always equal "Orderly." I have seen plenty, PLENTY of business travelers being disorderly, ignoring the order of boarding, ignoring carry-on limits, pushing and shoving, etc. They are my second-to-least favorite type of person to travel with. School/youth groups are worse, though.

Quoting Fabo (Reply 4):
If in the fields, you have to make some time for them to get out, board the bus, take a scenic tour of the airport...


Good point. You are definitely correct there.

Quoting Fabo (Reply 4):
There are actually cases that boarding is readied when airplane is not even on final approach yet.


 Wow! Wow!

Quoting Fabo (Reply 4):
Gate agents might also delay or move the boarding earlier if they see some specific groups in the mix - if you see that a children choir booked half the aircraft, you know you need to board sooner, because they will take their time...


You've got that right.

Quoting SchorschNG (Reply 5):
Data from the manufacturers is more a joke than any useful guidance. The time to board varies strongly with load factor, passenger population, luggage density. The type is less of a factor.
Most airlines use experience.


Interesting to know.

Quoting SchorschNG (Reply 5):
Any many airlines experience boarding as a huge burden as turnaround is the only time period where you can make time good on your schedule. Speeding with .81 instead of .78 on a 500nm trip doesn't win anything except a higher fuel bill.


I am not sure what this means but I think you are talking about time on the ground.


User currently offlinechuchoteur From France, joined Sep 2006, 763 posts, RR: 0
Reply 8, posted (2 years 4 months 1 week 5 days 18 hours ago) and read 5032 times:

Quoting SchorschNG (Reply 5):
Data from the manufacturers is more a joke than any useful guidance. The time to board varies strongly with load factor, passenger population, luggage density. The type is less of a factor.

...is that so?
So evacuation times are also incorrect as that would depend on passenger population etc?
^^

Of course, the items you quote should be taken into account by an airline when calculating turn around times.
Data from manufacturers are of course subject to the assumptions used (and if you check those links they are listed, particularly in the Boeing manuals that reference different sets of assumptions).

The type can very much be a factor, if you look at the manuals for A vs B, the 737 has a slower boarding/deboarding rate (in effect, due to the slightly narrower door). The overall turn around time achievable (20 minutes listed in the Boeing 737-800 manual) compensates for this in other areas (vs. an indicative 22 minutes unthe A320 manual).

The low cost carriers flying A320 family aircraft would also not have chosen the slightly wider aisle if they didn't understand the benefits in terms of pax flow rate through the cabin.

The major factor (in my opinion) is the airline/airport set-up.

Consider Air France trying to go down to 40 minute turns on domestic "La Navette" flights (A320 family a/c) vs. SAS achieving 20 minute turns (domestic) and 30 minute turns (international), also using A320 family a/c (and 737 a/c in Norway).

Airbus claimed that the A380 could be turned around in 60 minutes (as per what Emirates wished) and this was actually demonstrated in DXB (using Emirates ground staff). So your statement on manufacturer data being a joke is totally incorrect. However, you are free to disagree with the assumptions used!


User currently offlineKELPkid From United States of America, joined Nov 2005, 6370 posts, RR: 3
Reply 9, posted (2 years 4 months 1 week 5 days 17 hours ago) and read 5020 times:

Quoting AlnessW (Reply 7):

I'm not sure about that. We were scheduled to arrive at 9:33 at night. (Though didn't actually arrive until 10:30 thanks to the usual SFO delays. ) Do you know what SFO connections are like around that time of day on a Saturday?

Well, for starters, SQ1 departs around 1:20 AM daily...lots of other TransPac flights depart around the same time  



Celebrating the birth of KELPkidJR on August 5, 2009 :-)
User currently offlinePihero From France, joined Jan 2005, 4402 posts, RR: 76
Reply 10, posted (2 years 4 months 1 week 5 days 17 hours ago) and read 5008 times:

Quoting chuchoteur (Reply 8):
Consider Air France trying to go down to 40 minute turns on domestic "La Navette"

strange statement when that has been done - and bettered -for years and considering that it is just 5 minutes shorter than the "normal" medium-haul turn around on 319s (add 5 mins for a 321 ).
I'd like to see the kind of uplift and service SAS do on their domestic flights.
Best and quickest turn-around ? See the Koreans in the Gulf : 15 mins on a320 is usual ops.... and contracted, too.



Contrail designer
User currently offlinechuchoteur From France, joined Sep 2006, 763 posts, RR: 0
Reply 11, posted (2 years 4 months 1 week 5 days 17 hours ago) and read 4996 times:

Quoting Pihero (Reply 10):
Quoting chuchoteur (Reply 8):Consider Air France trying to go down to 40 minute turns on domestic "La Navette"
strange statement when that has been done - and bettered -for years and considering that it is just 5 minutes shorter than the "normal" medium-haul turn around on 319s (add 5 mins for a 321 ).

Pihero, you are right. They're trying to go down to 30 minutes, my fingers slipped  
Quoting Pihero (Reply 10):
I'd like to see the kind of uplift and service SAS do on their domestic flights.

I actually had the opportunity to spend a lot of time with SAS both at their Oslo & Stockholm hubs.

The catering etc is pretty much similar to other european mainline carriers (they now serve complimentary hot drinks free of charge, and they have pretty lively onboard sales - snacks mainly, quite a few of their sectors are over 2h).

Cleaning and servicing is pretty standard.

The big thing they have going for them is pretty organised airports (both in Oslo and Stockholm, they are easy to navigate as well). They've also invested heavily in their infrastructure and communications systems to control how their aircraft are brought in and turned around - they actually sell it to other airlines.

They have a pretty smart "press to talk" mobile phone system. The flight crew log in a duty cell phone and right the way through they use it to talk to ground ops, regardless of what airport they are at (the system logs and routes the calls automatically) so they don't waste too much time if something is required.

At Oslo they have 3 controllers overseeing 40+ aircraft simultaneously, so it works pretty well.

Some flights require quite a lot of catering, they still have a nice route that hops along the coast stopping at all the regional airports along the way...

Well worth checking out if you happen to go over there, they are aways happy to show how they are set up.


User currently offlineAlnessW From United States of America, joined Jun 2010, 620 posts, RR: 1
Reply 12, posted (2 years 4 months 1 week 5 days 9 hours ago) and read 4921 times:

Quoting chuchoteur (Reply 8):
The major factor (in my opinion) is the airline/airport set-up.

That would make sense.

Quoting chuchoteur (Reply 8):
So your statement on manufacturer data being a joke is totally incorrect. However, you are free to disagree with the assumptions used!

You make a valid point there.

Quoting KELPkid (Reply 9):
Well, for starters, SQ1 departs around 1:20 AM daily...lots of other TransPac flights depart around the same time

Good to know. Thanks!  


User currently offlineSchorschNG From Germany, joined Sep 2010, 500 posts, RR: 0
Reply 13, posted (2 years 4 months 1 week 4 days 1 hour ago) and read 4720 times:

Quoting chuchoteur (Reply 8):
Airbus claimed that the A380 could be turned around in 60 minutes (as per what Emirates wished) and this was actually demonstrated in DXB (using Emirates ground staff). So your statement on manufacturer data being a joke is totally incorrect. However, you are free to disagree with the assumptions used!

The manufacturers numbers can be achieved, but they are generally "best case" data. Airbus assumes a boarding rate of 14-18 passengers per minute using a single door for their A319/320/321. People familiar with that matter will tell you, that those rates are possible, but 10 people per minute are more likely.
Calculate yourself next time: when did boarding start, when did it finish. How many people in how many minutes. I am quite confident that more than 10 people per minute are a rare occurance.

SAS uses stairs, and probably two of them. Then boarding isn't such a problem.
You think Delta will start to use stairs in Atlanta?

Quoting chuchoteur (Reply 8):
The type can very much be a factor, if you look at the manuals for A vs B, the 737 has a slower boarding/deboarding rate (in effect, due to the slightly narrower door). The overall turn around time achievable (20 minutes listed in the Boeing 737-800 manual) compensates for this in other areas (vs. an indicative 22 minutes unthe A320 manual).

The Airbus ACAP quotes similar times for turnaround for A319 and A320, and simply increases the passenger boarding rate. Boeing numbers are more reliable. The door is not an issue in the single aisle, it is the aisle.
Next time you fly check where you start queueing: it starts in the aisle, continues through the door into the passenger bridge. Wider doors for faster boarding is like a wider ramps to prevent traffic jam on the Autobahn.

Wider aisle is a factor, however, the effect is hard to analyze. Again, passenger behavior is key. Low costers do not assign seats for exactly that reason. They encourage people to press for their desired seat, and a wider aisle gives the passenger the tool for it. No need on a regular domestic flight: you don't need to press to your seat when it is assigned.

That is one reason (beside many others) deboarding is much faster than boarding: people want to get out, because 5 seconds earlier means 5 seconds lifetime saved. 5 seconds earlier on your (assigned) seat at boarding means ... nothing.



From a structural standpoint, passengers are the worst possible payload. [Michael Chun-Yung Niu]
User currently offlineFabo From Slovakia, joined Aug 2005, 1219 posts, RR: 1
Reply 14, posted (2 years 4 months 1 week 4 days ago) and read 4712 times:

Quoting AlnessW (Reply 7):
Just because there are families traveling together doesn't necessarily mean that they are "inexperienced."
Quoting AlnessW (Reply 7):
"Business" does not always equal "Orderly." I have seen plenty, PLENTY of business travelers being disorderly, ignoring the order of boarding, ignoring carry-on limits, pushing and shoving, etc.

Indeed neither of those are ALWAYS the case. If it were... what would you do if the businessman and his businessman wife take their businessman child to Hawaii?

However, in general, families with children, and especially vacationgoers, DO take longer time than business crowd.

Yes of course there are families that fly each winter to Carribean, each summer to Medditerranean, and twice a year to Grandmas, and those can be, and indeed often are, faster than some of the businessmen, but they are far from the norm (although I will admit I do not know much about tourism in the US - so maybe Hawaii was a bad example?)



The light at the end of tunnel turn out to be a lighted sing saying NO EXIT
User currently offlinechuchoteur From France, joined Sep 2006, 763 posts, RR: 0
Reply 15, posted (2 years 4 months 1 week 3 days 20 hours ago) and read 4657 times:

Quoting SchorschNG (Reply 13):
SAS uses stairs, and probably two of them. Then boarding isn't such a problem.
Quoting SchorschNG (Reply 13):
Again, passenger behavior is key. Low costers do not assign seats for exactly that reason.

Interesting points.

SAS normally use two sets of stairs, and it certainly makes things quicker/easier.
- except in OSL where only the jetbridge is used.

Assigned seating, standard aisle (vs. wider aisle). and having spent two weeks with their airport ops, the choke point on the 737 starts initially at the door (as people fold/collapse telescoping bag handles) then moves into the cabin.

Where they shine is in their organisation on the ground. Which comes back to the airport/airline set-up being the key to a good turn around time...


User currently offlineAlnessW From United States of America, joined Jun 2010, 620 posts, RR: 1
Reply 16, posted (2 years 4 months 4 days 9 hours ago) and read 4346 times:

Quoting Fabo (Reply 14):
If it were... what would you do if the businessman and his businessman wife take their businessman child to Hawaii?

What's this mean? I think you are getting a bit off-topic here. I am not trying to start an argument about who boards the fastest or slowest.

Quoting Fabo (Reply 14):
However, in general, families with children, and especially vacationgoers, DO take longer time than business crowd.

That's why families with children are usually given the option to pre-board. See my comment above.

Quoting chuchoteur (Reply 15):
Assigned seating, standard aisle (vs. wider aisle). and having spent two weeks with their airport ops, the choke point on the 737 starts initially at the door (as people fold/collapse telescoping bag handles) then moves into the cabin.

Where they shine is in their organisation on the ground. Which comes back to the airport/airline set-up being the key to a good turn around time...

Interesting to know, thanks.


User currently offlineCONTACREW From United States of America, joined Feb 2012, 424 posts, RR: 0
Reply 17, posted (2 years 3 months 4 weeks 15 hours ago) and read 4065 times:

Boarding times at UA :

747/777/767 50 minutes prior to departure
757 - 45 minutes prior to departure
737/A319/A320 - 35 minutes prior to departure



Flight Attendants prepare doors for departure, cross check verify straps standby for all call
User currently offlineAlnessW From United States of America, joined Jun 2010, 620 posts, RR: 1
Reply 18, posted (2 years 3 months 3 weeks 4 days 14 hours ago) and read 3884 times:

Quoting CONTACREW (Reply 17):
Boarding times at UA :

747/777/767 50 minutes prior to departure
757 - 45 minutes prior to departure

Thanks for clarifying!    Exactly what I was looking for. Now, I assume that these are the times for the "new" UA. Becuase when I would fly the "old" UA, they boarded seemingly all narrowbody flights 30 minutes prior to departure. Except for RJs, which were 20 minutes prior to departure.

Quoting CONTACREW (Reply 17):

737/A319/A320 - 35 minutes prior to departure

And 35 minutes for RJs, right?


User currently offlineCONTACREW From United States of America, joined Feb 2012, 424 posts, RR: 0
Reply 19, posted (2 years 3 months 3 weeks 3 days 6 hours ago) and read 3780 times:

Quoting AlnessW (Reply 18):
And 35 minutes for RJs, right?

Yes 35 min for RJs as well, but it also depends on when the previous flight arrives so let's say your flight is going idk EWRBDL on the EMB145, scheduled departure time is 9:10p with a

Quoting AlnessW (Reply 18):
Thanks for clarifying!    Exactly what I was looking for. Now, I assume that these are the times for the "new" UA. Becuase when I would fly the "old" UA, they boarded seemingly all narrowbody flights 30 minutes prior to departure. Except for RJs, which were 20 minutes prior to departure.

Quoting CONTACREW (Reply 17):

737/A319/A320 - 35 minutes prior to departure

And 35 minutes for RJs, right?

Yes those are new boarding times which are actually boarding times from the sCO side of the airline. For RJ flights the boarding times are advertised as 35 minutes prior to departure, however due to other circumstances i.e. late arriving aircraft or crew, the boarding will get pushed back a bit. For instance I just flew on an EMB145, and the inbound was supposed to arrive at 1:30 with a departure time of 2:20, boarding at 1:45p, however the aircraft didnt arrive till 1:45, boarding at 2:00 and only left a few minutes behind scheduled at 2:25.



Flight Attendants prepare doors for departure, cross check verify straps standby for all call
User currently offlineAlnessW From United States of America, joined Jun 2010, 620 posts, RR: 1
Reply 20, posted (2 years 3 months 2 weeks 5 days 22 hours ago) and read 3558 times:

Quoting CONTACREW (Reply 19):
Yes 35 min for RJs as well, but it also depends on when the previous flight arrives so let's say your flight is going idk EWRBDL on the EMB145, scheduled departure time is 9:10p with a


With a what?

Quoting CONTACREW (Reply 19):
Yes those are new boarding times which are actually boarding times from the sCO side of the airline.


Ah, I see.

Quoting CONTACREW (Reply 19):
For RJ flights the boarding times are advertised as 35 minutes prior to departure, however due to other circumstances i.e. late arriving aircraft or crew, the boarding will get pushed back a bit.


I experienced that, too. I few months ago I was flying PDX-SFO on a UA Express/OO flight on a CRJ200. Scheduled departure time of 19:40, with boarding at 19:05. For some reason, boarding didn't actually start until 19:25, and we pushed back a few minutes late.


User currently offlineCONTACREW From United States of America, joined Feb 2012, 424 posts, RR: 0
Reply 21, posted (2 years 3 months 2 weeks 5 days 7 hours ago) and read 3482 times:

Quoting AlnessW (Reply 20):
With a what?

lol sorry about that it was supposed to say with a boarding time of 8:35p



Flight Attendants prepare doors for departure, cross check verify straps standby for all call
Top Of Page
Forum Index

Reply To This Topic How Are Boarding Times Determined?
Username:
No username? Sign up now!
Password: 


Forgot Password? Be reminded.
Remember me on this computer (uses cookies)
  • Tech/Ops related posts only!
  • Not Tech/Ops related? Use the other forums
  • No adverts of any kind. This includes web pages.
  • No hostile language or criticizing of others.
  • Do not post copyright protected material.
  • Use relevant and describing topics.
  • Check if your post already been discussed.
  • Check your spelling!
  • DETAILED RULES
Add Images Add SmiliesPosting Help

Please check your spelling (press "Check Spelling" above)


Similar topics:More similar topics...
How Are WN Boarding Letters And Numbers Assigned? posted Wed Aug 12 2009 14:36:47 by PI4EVER
How Are B747-200 And -300 Different, Besides SUD? posted Wed Feb 22 2012 16:34:33 by Newark727
How Are Head/Tailwinds Calculated? posted Thu Feb 9 2012 19:53:07 by UAL747
How Are Avod Systems And FMC Updated? posted Sun Aug 21 2011 12:28:34 by initious
For A Novice, How Are Composite Materials Made? posted Sun Aug 7 2011 19:42:43 by VC10er
How Are Cargo 747s Upper Deck Arranged? posted Wed Apr 20 2011 12:14:51 by c5load
How Are Emergency Descents Conducted? posted Tue Mar 15 2011 23:56:15 by Jackbr
How Are Cockpits Cleaned? posted Mon Mar 14 2011 04:24:30 by bristolflyer
How Are Passenger Oxygen Masks Deployed? posted Wed Jan 12 2011 18:49:08 by Quokka
How Are Production Jets Tested? posted Tue Jan 11 2011 16:04:27 by AKLRNO

Sponsor Message:
Printer friendly format