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Controls For Taxi  
User currently offlineLevg79 From United States of America, joined Sep 2003, 994 posts, RR: 0
Posted (10 years 10 months 1 week 3 days 12 hours ago) and read 3116 times:

Hey guys,

Please don't make fun of a new airplane fan, but I was just wondering if anyone could tell me how the pilot controls the airplane while he taxies to the runway or back to terminal.

Does the pilot use rudder pedals or yoke to turn the wheel? Or is there another way of controlling the direction while on the ground? Any help would be appreciated.




A mile of runway takes you to the world. A mile of highway takes you a mile.
20 replies: All unread, jump to last
 
User currently offlineFlyboyaz From , joined Dec 1969, posts, RR:
Reply 1, posted (10 years 10 months 1 week 3 days 12 hours ago) and read 3087 times:

It's a good question! They use the rudder mostly and on large planes, like commercial airliners, they also stear the nose wheel. Most smaller planes simply use the rudder pedals.

User currently offlineLevg79 From United States of America, joined Sep 2003, 994 posts, RR: 0
Reply 2, posted (10 years 10 months 1 week 3 days 12 hours ago) and read 3059 times:

Then the next question would arise....what do they use to steer the nose wheel? Is there something similar to a steering wheel hidden in a cockpit?

P.S. Please don't make fun of my stupid questions.



A mile of runway takes you to the world. A mile of highway takes you a mile.
User currently offlineGoboeing From United States of America, joined Jun 2000, 2683 posts, RR: 14
Reply 3, posted (10 years 10 months 1 week 3 days 12 hours ago) and read 3059 times:

There is a steering "tiller" in the large jets. It's a wheel on the captains side if you see any cockpit pictures. It steers the nosewheel to the full turning capability. The rudder pedals only steer up to about 10 degrees I've been told.

Nick


User currently offlineB747skipper From , joined Dec 1969, posts, RR:
Reply 4, posted (10 years 10 months 1 week 3 days 9 hours ago) and read 3000 times:

In the 747, both captain and co pilot have a "steering wheel" (tiller)... there were other airplanes with the option of installing a tiller on the co-pilot side. I have seen a few 707s so equipped...
xxx
A reduced amount of steering (5 degrees, L and R) can be obtained in most airplanes (for takeoff and landing) through steering with rudder pedals, but tight turns for taxi require use of the steering tiller...
xxx
(s) Skipper


User currently offlineZak From Greenland, joined Sep 2003, 1993 posts, RR: 8
Reply 5, posted (10 years 10 months 1 week 3 days 7 hours ago) and read 2978 times:

On this picture, the airbus tiller is visible left of the sidestick.

View Large View Medium
Click here for bigger photo!

Photo © Florian Kondziela




10=2
User currently offlineSpitfire From France, joined Feb 2001, 801 posts, RR: 7
Reply 6, posted (10 years 10 months 1 week 3 days 4 hours ago) and read 2924 times:

For your info, the round "knob" on top of the tiller is there to diconnect the rudder pedals input to the nose wheel while performing the "rudder check" (...feet full left then full right) during the flight controls check on the ground (during taxi).

Rgds
Spitfire

[Edited 2003-09-27 12:53:53]


Sabena ... Never to be forgotten (12 years already , what a shame !! )
User currently offlineSuspen From United States of America, joined Aug 2003, 156 posts, RR: 1
Reply 7, posted (10 years 10 months 1 week 3 days 4 hours ago) and read 2945 times:

Levg79, they aren't stupid questions. Welcome to the forum.  Big thumbs up

Now I'm curious too. I thought some jets also used differential thrust for taxiway turning, but no one has mentioned it yet. Is that only used for "emergencies", or not at all?



Tower: "Cessna xxxx, state your intentions", Cessna: "To become airline pilot"
User currently offlineCX flyboy From Hong Kong, joined Dec 1999, 6588 posts, RR: 55
Reply 8, posted (10 years 10 months 1 week 3 days 3 hours ago) and read 2910 times:

Levg79,

Remember that when most people reply, they are referring to specific aircraft. Don't get the idea it is the same for all aircraft.
On the 777, we have a tiller both for the Captain and FO. We usually use the tiller to steer the aircraft, however above 20kts taxying on long straight taxiways, we use the rudder. As others have mentionned, the rudder can only move the nosegear a limited number of degrees, whereas the tiller is quite sensitive and can turn the nosewheel a good 60 degrees or more. (68 seems to ring a bell but I'm probably wrong). On long straights, using the rudder means more gradual corrections to following the centreline instead of jerky movements with the tiller.
When doing the control check, the tiller is still connected to the nosegear so the rudder pedals will fight the tiller. To counteract this, we simply hold the tiller tightly when checking the rudder during taxi. If the tiller does not swing left and right with the rudder, the aircraft will not swing from side to side either.


User currently offlineTarzanboy From United States of America, joined Sep 2003, 132 posts, RR: 0
Reply 9, posted (10 years 10 months 1 week 2 days 12 hours ago) and read 2708 times:

skipper....

on other large crafts,,,,as well as the 747....how does the pilot avoid running off the taxiway wen he is making turns, like 90 degree turns?

how is he trained, or wat procedure is taught to avoid this mishap..and stay on the pavement...?


User currently offline747Teach From United States of America, joined Nov 2000, 176 posts, RR: 1
Reply 10, posted (10 years 10 months 1 week 2 days 12 hours ago) and read 2701 times:

Levg79: As others have said, most large aircraft have some sort of tiller or wheel to steer the nose strut while taxiing. A little differential thrust from the engines may help you, especially on tight turns. Seems to work a bit better on planes with wing-mounted engines. In this photo of a DC-9 cockpit, you can see the steering wheel on the left side.
View Large View Medium
Click here for bigger photo!

Photo © Michael Carter

The round knob in the middle of the steering wheel sets and releases the parking brake. And you might be interested in knowing that on the 747 aircraft, when you steer the nose strut to the left, for instance, the body gear will steer slightly in the opposite direction (to the right) to prevent wheel scrubbing. Regards,


User currently offlineCovert From Ghana, joined Oct 2001, 1450 posts, RR: 2
Reply 11, posted (10 years 10 months 1 week 18 hours ago) and read 2620 times:

For the inexperienced, can the taxi process be likened to learning how to drive?


thank goodness for TCAS !
User currently offlineB747skipper From , joined Dec 1969, posts, RR:
Reply 12, posted (10 years 10 months 1 week 17 hours ago) and read 2593 times:

Surprisingly to many, flying the 747 is extremely easy (very stable aircraft) but learning to taxi a 747, is not "that easy"...
xxx
Most pilots I train in the 747 come from other airplanes that are much "smaller" in size... I sometimes compare, that taxiing a 747 is like driving a "semi-truck" 18 wheeler (we have 18 wheels as well) and you have to "think" where you main gear "is" when making tight turns on taxiways...
xxx
I even sometimes teach taxi to ground engineers (mechanics) - we have a few mechanics who are qualified to taxi the 747...
xxx
Taxi in turns is not that easy with 747... if you nearly "stop" the aircraft, you are losing "inertia" momentum... and get quasi "stuck", requiring a lot of power to move again. I personally recommend a little extra power on the outboard engine (of the turn direction) to help... Taxi speed limitations in a 747 are (policy) 20 knots and 10 knots (or slower) in turns... think about your passengers in the rear if you "swing the tail" rapidly... very uncomfortable.
xxx
By the way, "steering on the runway" (nosewheel effectiveness) is as effective as a piece of "wet Kleenex"... the steering WOULD NOT HELP, if an outboard engine should fail... It is all in the "rudder" and "L/R" differential power... forget the steering, except to align yourself on the runway.
xxx
PanAm, by the way, disconnected the link, between the 747 rudder pedals, and the nosewheel steering system, since the 707 they were accustomed to, did not have a steering feature on rudder pedals...
xxx
Happy contrails  Smile
(s) Skipper


User currently offlineJetguy From , joined Dec 1969, posts, RR:
Reply 13, posted (10 years 10 months 1 week 17 hours ago) and read 2590 times:

Just an observation...

On nearly every Jet I've flown the biggest challenge facing the new pilot was learning how to taxi smoothly, without spilling the coffee and drinks in the back. In flight they're easy (and smooth) on the ground, well that can be an whole nuther story. Whether the problems are caused by sheer mass (B747), steering sensitivity, or touchy (grabby) brakes the results are the same.

Jetguy


User currently offlineConcordeBoy From , joined Dec 1969, posts, RR:
Reply 14, posted (10 years 10 months 6 days 19 hours ago) and read 2478 times:

think about your passengers in the rear if you "swing the tail" rapidly

Hmm.... "swing the tail" you say?  Big grin


User currently offlineMeister808 From United States of America, joined Jan 2000, 973 posts, RR: 1
Reply 15, posted (10 years 10 months 6 days 18 hours ago) and read 2468 times:

Well... thats a great video clip.

-Meister



Twin Cessna 812 Victor, Minneapolis Center, we observe your operation in the immediate vicinity of extreme precipitation
User currently offlinePositive rate From Australia, joined Sep 2001, 2143 posts, RR: 1
Reply 16, posted (10 years 10 months 6 days 12 hours ago) and read 2410 times:

Just a question in relation to the steering tiller. Is it directly connected to the nosewheel via hydraulics or is it electronically connected and simply sends a signal to move the nosewheel??

User currently offlineJetguy From , joined Dec 1969, posts, RR:
Reply 17, posted (10 years 10 months 6 days 11 hours ago) and read 2407 times:

It depends upon the specific aircraft, I've flown aircraft with 3 different types - electric, hydraulic, and also direct (cable).

User currently offlineSpitfire From France, joined Feb 2001, 801 posts, RR: 7
Reply 18, posted (10 years 10 months 6 days 4 hours ago) and read 2386 times:

Positive rate,

It is electronically connected on Airbus A320, A330 and A 340. Then via a computer ( BSCU - for Brake and Steering Control Unit, there is two off them onboard), the nose wheel is hydraulicaly actuated ("Green" hydaulic circuit).

Rgds

Spitfire

[Edited 2003-10-01 12:50:19]


Sabena ... Never to be forgotten (12 years already , what a shame !! )
User currently offlineGordonsmall From UK - Scotland, joined Jun 2001, 2100 posts, RR: 22
Reply 19, posted (10 years 10 months 5 days 23 hours ago) and read 2322 times:

Spitfire,

Is the steering control linear? Or does the nosegear deflection vs tiller deflection depend on speed or other factors?

Regards,
Gordon.



Statistically, people who have had the most birthdays tend to live the longest.
User currently offlineSpitfire From France, joined Feb 2001, 801 posts, RR: 7
Reply 20, posted (10 years 10 months 5 days 15 hours ago) and read 2289 times:

Sorry Gordonsmall that I can't post here a diagram coming from the Airbus FCOM. I'll try to explain...

Nose wheel steering angle varies in fonction of the ground speed. Up to 10 kts, you have 78 degrees available. Then from 10 kts to 30 kts the angle decreases from 78 to about 40 degrees. And from there ( from 30 kts to 100 kts), down to zero. That's for the input of the "manual" steering.
Concerning the rudder input, you have 6 degrees from 0 to 40 kts and then, down to zero up to 100 kts ( the rudder takes over).

All this for Airbus A330 and A340.

Rgds.

Spitfire



Sabena ... Never to be forgotten (12 years already , what a shame !! )
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