Mr Spaceman From Canada, joined Mar 2001, 2780 posts, RR: 15 Reply 1, posted (9 years 7 months 1 week 3 days 22 hours ago) and read 1901 times:
I used to de-ice corporate bizjets & turboprops. The fluid (I forget what it's called) we used came pre-mixed in 50 gallon drums & was died the colour pink to help you see where it was being applied to an aircraft. So we had no control over the percentage ratio of the de-icing fluid.
We simply pumped it from the drums into our de-icing machine's tank, where it was heated to around 230 degrees F (if I remember correctly). From there we would spray as much of the fluid as the customer could afford. We would concentrate on coating the wings first, and then their control surface hinge areas as well as soaking the landing gear. Basically after all the lifting surfaces were coated, we would spray any areas where ice & slush could accumulate during the takeoff roll, then "freeze" during intial climbout and prevent the movement of the elevator, rudder and ailerons or the retraction of the landing gear, flaps & slats. We also sprayed clear of the cockpit windows.
I suspect that a pilot would request a certain de-icing fluid ratio (if he could) based on the weather conditions he'd encounter during takeoff & climb. The better the weather, the lower the ratio, the lower the cost. Just a guess on my part though.
WestJetYYZ From , joined Dec 1969, posts, RR: Reply 2, posted (9 years 7 months 1 week 3 days 18 hours ago) and read 1854 times:
There are two types that I'm aware of, that they use here in YYZ. Type I, and Type II. Type one is a de-icing fluid, and type two is an anti-icing (more thick gelly like that Type I.) I believe these are a more modern type if de-icing fluid, older ones I believe were given a ratio of fluid to water. Someone correct me if I am wrong on that though. The only data we are given these days is which type was used (I or II), the amount used, and the start and stop times for de-icing. Hope this helps?
Pilotpip From United States of America, joined Sep 2003, 3084 posts, RR: 12 Reply 3, posted (9 years 7 months 1 week 3 days 17 hours ago) and read 1839 times:
Hey westjet, it sounds like the stuff you were using was TKS fluid. It's this thick, nasty fluid that is not fun to use and costs like $70 a gallon. A few early bizjets used it in weeping wing anti-ice systems (Citation SII, and all Hawkers).
As for the other fluids there are three kinds I know of. Type I, II, and IV(no idea where III went). WestJet has it right on type I and II. Type IV has an even more viscous soulution and has a higher holdover time. Holdover time is the amount of time an aircraft can sit on the ground after being deiced. All air carriers have holdover charts in their ops manuals.
744rules From Belgium, joined Mar 2002, 406 posts, RR: 0 Reply 4, posted (9 years 7 months 1 week 3 days 9 hours ago) and read 1815 times:
On recent de-icing trucks, there are 2 tanks. One is for water, the other for the killfrost (de-icing fluid). The truck has a heater system and the driver can select the mixture as per crew request, depending on type of weather and degree of ice snow, as this affects the holdover time (already mentioned above)
Ba299 From United Kingdom, joined Jun 2003, 173 posts, RR: 1 Reply 6, posted (9 years 7 months 1 week 2 days 20 hours ago) and read 1763 times:
As said by the other it means how many water and fluid the ground staff have to spray on the aircraft. Our SOP require in it is possible the type 2 o 4 fluid.
e.g. in a classic winter day taking off from EWR or YUL with light to moderate snow we ask for a two step de-icing (de-icing plus anti-icing).
the de-icing will be 0% fluid 100% warm water. The anti-icing mix depend on the temperature and also the expected delay, if we expect some delay after the end of operation we ask for 75% fluid or also 100%.
DLMHT From United States of America, joined Oct 2003, 99 posts, RR: 0 Reply 8, posted (9 years 7 months 5 days 21 hours ago) and read 1630 times:
Typically, deicing fluid comes in two "flavors", Type I and Type IV.
Type I is usually orange in color, and is mixed 1 part water to 1 part glycol ( i.e. 50/50 mix). Depending on the airline and the circumstance, this fluid either comes pre-mixed or is mixed in the deicing truck itself. This fluid is heated in the deicer to at least 140 degrees at the nozzle, and is sprayed on the aircraft to remove contaminants ( i.e. frost, snow, slush).
Type IV is green in color, is 100% glycol, and has the consistency of the Nickolodeon slime. Its not necessary to heat Type IV, but it always can only be applied to a "clean" aircraft ( one that has already been sprayed with Type I). Due to the thick consistency of the fluid, it is not sprayed, but instead squirted out of the nozzle. Typically, it is only applied to critical surfaces of the aircraft, such as the wings and horizontal/vertical stabilizers.
As somebody mentioned earlier, the start/stop time of the deicing event is recorded and given to the pilot-in-command to determine the holdover time of the deicing fluid. This time starts when the final application of fluid (either Type I of IV begins) and extends until the fluid is no longer able to prevent accumulation on the ground. The aircraft must be airborne by the time that the holdover time is expired. I know that for light freezing rain, the holdover time is like 18 minutes. Therefore, if the aircraft is not airborne in 18 minutes from when the Type IV application began, the aircraft will need to return to the deicing pad and the whole process will need to begin again.
In a deicing event, the ground controllers will talk to each flight and find out when their holdover time expires, and then try to expedite and get the aircraft airborne before the time is up.