Zak From Greenland, joined Sep 2003, 1993 posts, RR: 8
Reply 3, posted (11 years 10 months 1 day 17 hours ago) and read 1791 times:
some copy+paste from
ILS Categories -
Cat.I - 200 feet DH - 2,400 feet (or 1,800 feet) RVR
Metric: 800 metres of 550 meters RVR...
Cat II Restricted - 150 feet DH - 1,600 feet RVR
metric: 500 metres RVR
Cat II - 100 feet DH - 1,200 feet RVR
Metric: 350 metres RVR
Cat.IIIa - 700 feet RVR - no DH (alert height generally 50 feet)
Metric: 250 meters RVR
Cat.IIIb - 600 feet RVR - no DH (alert height generally 35 feet)
Metric: 175 metres RVR
Cat.IIIc - zero ceiling, zero visibility - "blind" landing...
RVR is Runway Visual Range, basically a distance in feet that the pilot can expect to see forward in his airplane.
The ILS equipment at the airport must be certified for it, as well as aircraft type (actually individual aircraft) and crew have to be certified.
Alert Height (AH) is not like a Decision Height (DH) -
At "DH" (obtained from radio altimeter for Cat.II) you have to make a DECISION to land or go-around...
In Cat.III operations, there is no DH... but you have to make a decision to land based on "what you see"... pilots find the DH "decision" very convenient for Cat.II, but did not exist for Cat.III...
So in "pratical operations", the AH is used somewhat like a DH, but is not regulatory. In other terms, we expect to "see the runway" at that point... which is about 50 feet radio altimeter, just about where the runway threshold is located, in Cat.IIIa minimums. In Cat.IIIb, happens at about 35 feet...
Many 747 are equipped for Cat.IIIa operations (not Cat.IIIb), although most of the "Classic" 747s (with 3 autopilot channels) have the LRCU that is required for Cat.IIIb... LRCU = landing roll control unit... keeps the nose wheel on the center line, using the localizer...
i think that sums it all up perfectly. good thing we have such knowledgeable people on the boards here like those in the thread i copied it from.
MD-90 From United States of America, joined Jan 2000, 8519 posts, RR: 11
Reply 4, posted (11 years 9 months 3 weeks 5 days 10 hours ago) and read 1613 times:
The very first airplane certified for Cat IIIa was the L-1011, and the 747 and DC-10 never came stock from the factory with that level of certification (I read that somewhere, and I'm juessing it refered to the -100, I'm not sure about the -200/-300 and obviously not the 744)
No airliner has ever been certified for Cat IIIc, because you would need some way to taxi the airplane in the literally zero visibility, so Delhi would for now be wasting their money for Cat IIIc. Especially since embedding something in the pavement for the airliners to follow would be expensive.
RayChuang From United States of America, joined Jun 2000, 8212 posts, RR: 4
Reply 5, posted (11 years 9 months 3 weeks 3 days 21 hours ago) and read 1549 times:
Actually, the wide use of GPS and the increasing availability of ground-based differential GPS transmitters could make ICAO Category IIIc operations possible at most airports. Such a GPS setup could allow an airliner to know its position within one feet (less than a third of a meter!).
I can see by 2010 many airports installing special transmitters that generate a signal for both the US-based GPS system and the European based Galileo system that will allow essentially totally-blind takeoffs, landings and ground operations.
EIDW From Ireland, joined Nov 2003, 44 posts, RR: 0
Reply 6, posted (11 years 9 months 3 weeks 3 days 20 hours ago) and read 1531 times:
There is one serious problem with zero-visibility landings and/or ground ops. In the event of an accident or problem there would surely be serious issues with the ability of fire or rescue crews locating debris, pax and even the entire plane !
DC-10Tech From United States of America, joined Jun 2001, 298 posts, RR: 2
Reply 8, posted (11 years 9 months 3 weeks 2 days 22 hours ago) and read 1455 times:
Some good answers.
CatIIIB must have rollout guidance, meaning the aircraft stays aligned on the runway after touchdown, if the aircraft drifts off the centerline after landing, that's considered a CatIIIA landing. At least that's how we do it at FedEx.