Carriers are fitted with the Automatic Carrier Landing System which allow certain aircraft to be "auto-landed" onto the carrier. Not all carrier aircraft can use the system however. Whether it's popular with the aircrews is another matter. (I don't think it is.)
F-14s aren't equipped with ACLS (I don't think).
Otherwise landings are all done visually day and night without any automatics.
There are flight deck lights and the drop line lights to help the pilot land onboard. If the carrier is operating close to friendly land, the returning aircraft have an option to divert to land, otherwise the carrier is the only place to land and the pilots just keep trying and trying until they get back onboard.
The fun part is when they turn out the flight deck lights, try landing with NVGs
I think helo pilots have it harder when they are using NVGs to land. Try putting a helo onto a pitching flight deck 100ft x 35ft wide with no lights at night. You realize very quickly how important peripheral vision is in trying to land. You're missing a lot of visual cues that you have during the day. There is no equivalent automatic landing system for helicopters.
Woodreau / KMVL
Bonus animus sit, ab experientia. Quod salvatum fuerit de malis usu venit judicium.