I have video of the C-130 landing tests you are talking about. Are you familiar with JATO rockets? This C-130 had JATO bottles on the side and near top of the forward fuselage pointing FORWARD... the idea was to decelerate in short order. On the video I have and what you're talking about they hit the cans too early, while the plane was still in the air, and it effectively dropped out of the air (guessing 20' or so, haven't watched it in a while) and when it did the starboard wing came off and a fuel fire immediately started. I'm not certain, but I don't think any of the crew died. They did scrap the idea after that though.
And COD stands for Carrier Onboard Delivery, or what brings mail, cargo and crew on board while the Carrier is underway. The COD aircraft used for the last few decades has been the Grumman C-2 Greyhound, an empty cargo version of its sister, the E-2 Hawkeye.
And yes the U-2 took off from a carrier and the 130 took off and landed, unassisted, but neither was put into practice.
Still cool though.
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