I guess you would get many denominations from the use of Iesegesis (reading into the text ones own meaning) rather than exgesis ( actually using the text to determine the meaning). Not all of the ones listed actually teach different things. One thing is certain some are wrong, and if one is right then there would be a necessity to distinguish itself from the errant one. So what are some of the things they differ on? Well some deny the divinity of Christ, some deny the authority of scripture or at least put it on equal grounds with tradition or papal authority, some differ on primary means of salvation ( whether it is works or faith or the combo) some differ as to who Christ died for ( limited atonement), some differ as to whether man has free will or not, some differ on whether their is continuing revelation, etc.. What is certain is that with a proper hermenuetical appraoch and using exegesis these differences clear up. What that means is you use the Bible and only the Bible to interpret the Bible and you take it in context with who it is being written to and the purpose for it's writng.
traditionally any church that denies the trinity, is works based, or believes in continual revelation of the Word of God, but calims to be christian is held as being a cult. A quick glance at the list reveals a few of these: Some people are going to get mad
Let's take a few example's say the jehovas witness, first the term Jehovah is in fact a mistranslation, which they insist on being the true name for God. They also deny the divinity of Christ. They have a seperate translation which no Hebrew or greek scholar in their right mind is willing to accept, even the athiest ones. Actaully the problems with that religion are too numerous and sundry to list.
Branch Davidian, Waco, nuff said.
Church of God is unitarian if I am not mistaken, so they deny the divinity of Christ.
Church of Christ believes that Baptism is a requirement for salvation, a work, so chalk them up.
LDS, just take a look for yourself, not even remotely a Christian faith.
Seventh Day Adventist, continual revelation.
Chalk up just about any thing with the word unitarian in it.
gnostics believe in a special revelation only to a few.
Half the list isn't even remotely Christian.
Some of the others join together to provide a wider fund for missionary outreach, some of the various conventions. So there really isn't a doctrinal issue in these.
Really most of the Christian ones can be boiled down to a few, and they vary let me tell you. they are essentialy:
I'm sure I forgot a few.
All Catholics differ with protestants on a fundamental level, namely justification , Protestants believe that they are justified in a legal sense of the word, meaning that they aren't really justified because of there actul status in God's eyes, but because the righteuosness of Christ is given on their behalf. So God sees Christ righteuosness not theirs. Catholics believe on the other hand that they are actually justified and worhty of some form of merit. There are other issues involved but this one is of prime importance. we can discuss these later if you wish. Best way to decide would be to actually read the Bible and see for yourself what the plain meaning is.
armenians, weslyans,and calvinists: The issue between these is whether man is toally responsible for his actions or whether god is. It is an issue of freewill here or the soverignty of God. In actuality these two aren't mutaully exclusive but these particular denominations still battle it out. Even though scripture plainly states we are chosen but free. Difficult concept and it sounds contradictory, but it isn't. All boils down to watching the Olympics. If you read the paper today and see who won the events, and then later watch a pre-recorded taping of those events you will know the outcome but it doesn't make the athletes choices any less free. Some on the strict or hyper calvinist side of the camp believe in limited atonement, meaning Christ only died for a few, plainly contradicting scripture, on the other hand the extreme armininians in actuality deny the soveriegnty of God contradicting scripture. Scripture offers a very balanced view on this and it isn't contradictory.
I'm running out of time and I'll answer back later, hope that helps a little.