In Spain there's three kind of trains:
The regular ones, with services at about 120 kms/h (75 MPH) for short distances, and until 160 (100) for long distances.
The second kind is the TALGO. It stands fot Tren Articulado Ligero Goikoetxea Oriol (Goikoetxea's and Oriol's Light Articulated Train), being Goikoetxea and Oriol the two engineers that disegned it after the initial Goikoetxea's own idea on reliability, safety and economy. It started services in 1942 at 115 kms/h
The next one, Talgo II, entered service by 1968, at 120 kms/h and was certified for 160 kms/h in 1986.
Talgo III entered service in 1974. The difference from the II is the variable width. Spain lines are 12,5 cms wider than European ones, and this train is able to circulate in european tracks thanks to its movable wheels. These ones started night services to Paris and day services to Paris and Geneva. The procedure is fully automated in an installation like the next picture's
and needs only 5 secs each axle, meaning about two or three minutes for a whole train, depending on number of wagons.
Talgo Pendular entered service in 1980. The name comes from the suspension columns, since the weight of the train body does not stand on the axels, but on top of the inside columns, which are as high as the train itself. It makes a pendular effect that allows the train a higher speed on curve, as the inertia pulls it from the lower part. The passengers do not feel the centrifugal force.
The train has only one axle between two wagons, making the system pull the axles despite the direction the train is circulating. Only the first and the last units have their own axle. Each one of the in-between ones pull the axle behind it.
The simplicity of this suspension allow also the train to be significantly lower than the normal trains, with benefits to the gravity center
This train has served lines between New York and Boston, and from Seattle to Vancouver among others. Germany bought 115 units of it in 1992.
Today, the Talgo II serves some domestic lines and the Talgo III international ones, both at 160 kms/h.
The Talgo Pendular serves regular lines, both domestic and international (Madrid-Paris, Barcelona-Paris, Barcelona-Geneva, Barcelona-Milano) at 200 kms/h (120 MPH) in regular tracks and 240 (150) in high speed tracks with passengers, althoug it was tested in these tracks at 303 kms/h. (189 MPH)
Other evolutions are the Talgo Pendular 200, already pictured and the Talgo XXI
with variable width also available on the locomotive, representing big operative benefits in international sectors.
The third type is the TGV, which for the moment is serving only Madrid-Sevilla. I have no pics, but it looks like the french TGV. The technology is like in the TALGO, in which each axle is pulled by the wagon in front of it, although in this case, there's a twin boogie between wagons.
It is serving with pasengers at 340 kms/h.(215 MPH)
High speed trains are expected to link Madrid to Barcelona and France by 2004, and for this sector TALGO is already testing a train that has already circulated at 359 kms/h, and will serve the lines with passengers at 350 kms/h (220 MPH)
Hope you enjoyed.