It would certainly be very pricey and difficult to replicate what Apollo did, for a start Saturn V production tolling was cut up.
But you would not want to do it that way in any case.
JFK wanted a landing by 1968, an end for his hoped for 2nd term, and maybe a boost for RFK in '68.
So the original NASA plan, to use a huge (much larger than Saturn V) NOVA rocket to do a direct ascent mode, putting 60 tons of Lander and Command Module directly on the Moon was axed at an early stage.
Difficult, expensive, fraught with potential operational problems and unlikely to do it by the end of the 60's.
So NASA went with Lunar Orbit Rendevous, splitting the Lander and Command Module, and able to use a smaller rocket.
The almost forgotten Gemini Programme proved you could perform complex docking operations in space.
The same still applies now, with Shuttle and conventional rockets plus a space station, you can put the craft together in orbit. You don't need a huge booster to get to the Moon from Earth orbit.
As for Mars, the Robert Zubrin plan looks very do-able and affordable, in the spirit of Apollo you do what you need to get there and nothing else.
Previous Mars proposals have been full of exotic technology, huge spacecraft, every bit of the space industry trying to get their pet project on board. Unreal and unaffordable.
It needs political will to do it, nothing else.
This idea that Apollo damaged the US economy is rubbish, if anything did in the 60's it was Vietnam, the budgets for the two don't compare, by the late 60's the US was spending more in Vietnam in a year than it did on the whole of Apollo.
At least Apollo gave great technological benefits, including a real boost to computer technology, look what that industry has done for the USA.
So I hope the Chinese do go for a manned programme, it could get some fingers out of some US political backsides.