Sure we do, but 5,000 years of teachings leaves you a lot of information to digest. There's Torah, the remainder of the Tanakh, the Talmud, etc....... It's a lot of information to digest and it seems that these groups enjoy preying on Jewish ignorance about faith.
Of course to answer your question, there has never been in a true sense a complete summary of Jewish beliefs. However, when people ask what Jews believe or stand for, many usually refer to Rambam's 13 principles of faith. While this is the closest thing we have to a concise doctrine, even this is subject to much scrutiny and debate among the Jewish community:
G-d is one and unique
G-d is incorporeal
G-d is eternal
Prayer is to be directed to G-d alone and to no other
The words of the prophets are true
Moses's prophecies are true, and Moses was the greatest of the prophets
The Written Torah and Oral Torah were given to Moses
There will be no other Torah
G-d knows the thoughts and deeds of men
G-d will reward the good and punish the wicked
The Messiah will come
The dead will be resurrected
Personally, I suppose Jews stand for monotheism, living by example, the value of one's actions in life, and acceptance of all the righteous of all nations.