Thank you for the link. I think I found my answer in this paragraph:
Requirements for the issue of visas for longer stays and/or stays which entitle the holder to take up gainful employment
With the exception of EU nationals, all foreigners require visas for stays of more than three months or stays leading to the holder taking up gainful employment for which a work permit is necessary. A person intending to come to Germany for such a stay must apply for a visa to the competent mission before arriving in the country. His/her visa application must be approved by the relevant aliens authority in Germany, i.e. the aliens authority in the place where the applicant intends to take up residence. Exempted from this requirement are citizens of the EU, the EEC countries and of Switzerland, Australia, Israel, Japan, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States of America, who may obtain the necessary residence permit also after entering Germany.
It seems I can apply for a residence permit once I arrive in Germany.
Bear Claw, Free Fall, A Gunner's View