I'm not certain as to when and where the striped uniforms for inmates first appeared. They were common in the United States by the 1870s. Most of the changes involving uniforms and restraints were made by the states individually. One example is Florida and its decision to abolish the traditional striped inmate uniform in 1937 in favor of a simpler design. I suspect that the idea came about with the need to readily identify inmates who were leased out as labor under the convict lease systems, beginning in the 1870s. Inmates were most often leased out to railroads and mines, two labor intensive industries.
As for the ball and chain, they were used to confine inmates in enclosed areas such as the stockade or prison yard. They impeded rapid movement of inmates, a major problem when the prisons industrialized. The introduction of widespread prison labor probably was the biggest factor in the decision to eliminate the ball and chain. Why chain the prisoners up when most of them were willing and able to work at prison industry jobs? In fact, for many inmates having a job is effective in managing inmate behavior. Having a job allows them to be out of their cell for up to ten hours a day. That gives them a constructive diversion to pass the time and many behave themselves out of fear of losing that job if they break the institution rules. Nowadays, institutions have special units to house problem inmates and have the ability to restrain inmates using methods that are vast improvements over the ball and chain. Incidentally, when JPATS first took to the air, they wanted to shackle the inmates to their seats. However, the FAA said that was a no-no and they didn't do that.
Getting back to the origin of uniforms, how many out there know the origin of the traditional police uniform? Who came up with the idea, when and why was the color blue selected?
"When a man runs on railroads over half of his lifetime he is fit for nothing else-and at times he don't know that."