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This is it in a nutshell:
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Jung's Theory of Psychological Types
C.G. Jung's (1971) theory of psychological types attempts to categorize people in terms of their primary modes of psychological functioning.
The theory is based on the assumption that there are different functions and attitudes of consciousness.
The Functions of Consciousness
The functions of consciousness refer to the different ways in which the conscious mind can apprehend reality. According to Jung, these are (a) Sensation, (b) Intuition, (c) Thinking and (d) Feeling.
Jung arranges these four functions into two pairs of opposites. Firstly there are the two perceiving (or, non-rational) functions of Sensation and Intuition. Secondly, there are the two judging (or, rational) functions of Thinking and Feeling.
Jung believes that whichever function dominates consciousness (e.g., Thinking), its opposite (e.g., Feeling) will be repressed and therefore will tend to characterise unconscious functioning.
In addition to the dominant function, people will generally have an auxiliary (or, secondary) function. This will be one of the functions from the other pair. For example, if Thinking is dominant, the auxiliary function may be Sensation or Intuition (but not Feeling). It is often useful to refer to both the dominant and auxiliary functions and to describe someone's function type as, for example, Sensory Thinking or Intuitive Feeling.
The Attitudes of Consciousness
The attitudes of consciousness refer to the basic direction in which a person's conscious interests and energies may flow - either inward to subjective, psychological experience, or outward to the environment of objects, other people and collective norms. These two directions define the two attitude types of (a) Introversion and (b) Extraversion. As with the psychological functions, whichever attitude dominates consciousness, its opposite will tend to be repressed and to characterise the functioning of the unconscious.
To give a complete description of a person's psychological type, we refer to both the function and attitude type. For example a person may be described as an Extraverted Feeling type, or an Introverted Intuitive Thinking type. When two functions are described, it is useful to indicate which is dominant and which is auxiliary.
In the following descriptions, only the major types are considered, in which there is one dominant function. Mixed types (where there is both a dominant and auxiliary function) may be understood as combinations of the two corresponding major types. Thus an Introverted Intuitive Thinking type may be seen as a combination of Introverted Intuition and Introverted Thinking. If Intuition is the dominant function, then Introverted Intuition will predominate over Introverted Thinking.