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Definition Of Wake Turbulance According To The AIM

Fri Nov 16, 2001 2:19 pm

AIM Paragraph 7-3-1 states "Every aircraft generates a wake while in flight. Initially, when pilots encountered this wake in flight, the disturbance was attributed to "prop wash." It is known, however, that this disturbance is caused by a pair of counter rotating vortices trailing from the wing tips. The vortices from large aircraft pose problems to encountering aircraft. For instance, the wake of these aircraft can impose rolling moments exceeding the roll-control authority of the encountering aircraft. Further, turbulence generated within the vortices can damage aircraft components and equipment if encountered at close range. The pilot must learn to envision the location of the vortex wake generated by larger (transport category) aircraft and adjust the flight path accordingly."
"Lift is generated by the creation of a pressure differential over the wing surface. The lowest pressure occurs over the upper wing surface and the highest pressure under the wing. This pressure differential triggers the roll up of the airflow aft of the wing resulting in swirling air masses trailing downstream of the wing tips. After the roll up is completed, the wake consists of two counter rotating cylindrical vortices. (See Figure 7-3-1.) Most of the energy is within a few feet of the center of each vortex, but pilots should avoid a region within about 100 feet of the vortex core."
In referance to vortex strength,
"The strength of the vortex is governed by the weight, speed, and shape of the wing of the generating aircraft. The vortex characteristics of any given aircraft can also be changed by extension of flaps or other wing configuring devices as well as by change in speed. However, as the basic factor is weight, the vortex strength increases proportionately. Peak vortex tangential speeds exceeding 300 feet per second have been recorded. The greatest vortex strength occurs when the generating aircraft is HEAVY, CLEAN and SLOW. "
Interestingly, paragraph 7-3-3 b. (induced roll) states
"In rare instances a wake encounter could cause inflight structural damage of catastrophic proportions."
Paragraph 7-3-5
"A wake encounter can be catastrophic. In 1972 at Fort Worth a DC-9 got too close to a DC-10 (two miles back) rolled, caught a wingtip, and cartwheeled coming to rest in an inverted position on the runway. All aboard were killed."

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