First climbouts . . . it can vary very much. The heavier the aircraft, the lower the climb angle. A light 747 can climb at about 15 degrees, but with a heavy load, the aircraft might only reach 11 degrees and should an aircraft lose an engine on climbout, the angle would decrease even further.
The 757 (corrections?) has the steepest climb rate; it can reach 17-18 degrees (again depending on load). On go arounds, the angles can be particularly steep as the aircraft - being on their final approaches can be lighter. In 1991, an Interflug crew (the old East German airline) was doing a go around at Moscow in an A310, then very new to them. The aircraft's climbout after G/A was so steep that the pilot tried to intervene. Having flown Ilyushins, he must have had the shock of his life (nothing compared to the shock of what followed, but that's another story!)
On descent, aircraft can go down at about 6,000 fpm, but that is not pleasant. Generally, 2-3,000 fpm is average. On approach, the descent rate is about five times the speed - 700 fpm is about the average.