I've long wondered just how much astronavigation was used on airliners in, say, 1955, or in 1965. I assume very few 707/DC-8s ever used it regularly-- was Doppler radar the usual by then? But I have the impression, rightly or wrongly, that it wasn't used that much even in the 1950s. Were the Constellations and DC-7Cs getting some kind of fixes from those weather ships parked out there at fixed midocean positions? Were they using Loran or Consol or something? When did Omega start, early 1960s?
I once read that even in 1939 Pan Am didn't want to rely on astro with their B314 flights (which, after all, wasn't pressurized, so couldn't be sure of getting above cloud)-- they wanted some sort of radio alternative, but dunno what it was.