In a nutshell, here are a few reasons why the likes of Ilyushin and Tupolev are not very successful right now:
1) In the Soviet economy Tupolev and other such names were not integrated companies that designed, manufactured, assembled, serviced, and financed their aircraft like Boeing, Airbus etc. They were simply design bureaus. They designed an aircraft, and once approved by the government, the blueprints were handed off to a separate assembly plant, which was a different company altogether. Service was also separated, and of course financing was not a problem in such an economy. This fragmented industry is no good in private industry, and it has taken a number of years to start sorting them out. But I understand that the design bureaus and other segments are finally consolidating into integrated aircraft companies.
2) But one huge problem still remains - finance. It costs a hell of a lot of money to buy all the parts and assemble an airliner and you are out-of-pocket until the plane is delivered and an airline pays you. Russian manufacturers are so cash-strapped that the cannot afford to build planes without a pre-paid buyer, and with such limitations, they cannot start efficient mass-production. Each aircraft is essentially a prototype, with all the quality problems a prototype has. Same goes for engines and other components, which are simply not produced in large enough numbers to allow production to go smoothly.
3) While Russian airframes and structural engineers are excellent, they are still far behind in engine efficiency and reliability. Essentially, their state of engine technology is about where the west was 30 years ago, and Avionics are little better. These are of course things that can improve with time and technology-sharing ventures, but that can only happen if they get steady business - see 2) above.
I sincerely hope that Russian industry will provide a competitor to Airbus and Boeing. God knows they need some.
The only thing you should feel when shooting a terrorist: Recoil.