All transport category commuter and airline (probably corporate jet ops too, but don't know for sure) train for rapid decompression, and onboard fires/smoke.
Quick donning O2 can be put on within seconds - there is a mandated time frame by regulation both in Canada and the USA, but I don't know what it is other than you have to be able to put it on and activate it with one hand.
The chances of explosive decompression on any jet aircraft are very, very remote. Explosive decompression would occur on a smaller jet with the loss of a door or fuselage failure as a result of explosion, for instance. On a large jet aircraft like a 747, the loss of a cabin door would result in a rapid decompression at the further most point from the door, increasing in intensity to within immediate vicinity of the door. Concurrent with the loss of pressure, the airplane continues to try and pressurize itself by closing the pressurization outflow valve.
With the last paragraph in mind, it changes the situation in the cockpit from needing only seconds to react to a period somewhat longer. Of course, should the failure causing loss of pressurization be from a blown out cockpit window, then things would be a lot more exciting (...NOT!), er how about urgent! The cockpit windows are the thickest and most reinforced on the airplane, partially for that reason.
When an aircraft suffers a rapid decompression, the pilots know about it instantly due to the feeling in their ears - a very distinct physiological reaction. Additionally, when the cabin pressure rises above 10,000 feet, alarms go off in the cockpit.
So the chances of getting a -60C blast of cold air in the face are one in a gazillion. At any rate, the aircraft must be able, and crews are trained to get the aircraft down below 14,000 in 4 minutes or less, from the highest certified altitude.
Many cockpit O2 masks require a supplementary smoke goggles in the event of smoke/fire. Some masks integrate the two, but nonetheless both types are not usually portable.
For fires, separate Personal Breathing Equipment (PBE's) are now installed. They are tight fitting hoods with a llittle Oxygen generator inside - good for about 15 minutes.
If you need to do both the above procedures at the same time (like with Swissair 111 last year), you're having a really bad day.
Once again, deepest condolences to the family and friends of all onboard Payne's aircraft. Rest in Peace.