Hi there, to answer your questions:-
1) 24/06 10,000' ILS, PAPIs, the works
13/31 c. 5,000'. Not available to commercial planes
2) Don't know about costs, but if you go to the Aer Rianta website (the airport operator) they might have a contact. I believe they have very good rates, as they're constantly under threat. Aeroflot pulled out and they're always looking for new carriers, bringing us neatly onto . . .
3) Very easy. If they even suspect you might own or know someone who owns or might even be thinking of operating a plane that could fly transatlantic flights, they'll turn on the charm and you'll have a life supply of Irish coffees.
Well, maybe not quite, but the issue is wound up in Irish politics. It's VERY difficult to get access to Dublin, because of the bilateral and the need to "protect" Shannon, but if you want to fly to Shannon alone, they'll roll out the red carpet for you.
4) Aeroflot still flies once or twice per week. Aer Lingus flies about three times a day to the US, plus many flights to Dublin and London. There's also a daily to Paris and Virgin flies to Stansted. Delta and Continental only fly there because they want to fly to Dublin and Royal Jordanian and Pakistani also fly in their on the way to and from the US.
Hope that helps!