: Vanguard. Also, way back, TWA.
You beat me to it! Also, it was Western Pacific at COS
, not Pacific Western. They were very successful at COS
, but decided to move to DEN
, and the costs of doing so killed them...
I'll also add:
: ValueJet had increasing operations at IAD
, really a focus city that might have become a hub were it not for Flt 592...
: AirTran's hub here has become the number 1 focus city for the new AirTran, but it's no longer really a hub. It may soon be surpassed by BWI
, which is growing into a hub...
A lot of people are listing "hubs" that never really were hubs in the modern sense of the term. What were connecting cities during the "bad/good" (your choice) old days of regulation would today be called a focus city or gateway.
Modern hubs have significantly higher numbers of flights than their counterparts around the system. For example, AirTran has nearly 300 daily operations at ATL
(maybe more), while only 6-10 operations at the majority of its outstations (opeation = 1 t/o or 1 landing). Prior to deregulation, the CAB kept airlines from operating in such a way that the majority of its flights operated from any one airport, and no airport was dominated by any one carrier to the point that others could not also have significant operations there.
I'm not arguing, I'm just pointing out that the definition of "hub" has changed.
Actually, I don't think anyone really thought of any city as a "hub" way back when, excepting when they grew naturally out of the geography, such as Braniff's organic hub at DFW
, or Delta's organic hub at ATL
. However, many of these gateway cities were effectively hubs because the airlines chose to schedule their flights with connections through those airports, like AA
Those who fail to learn history are doomed to repeat it in summer school.