They started building 06-24 (previously known as 07-25) in 1958. The runway became operational on March 25th 1960 when a KLM DC-8 landed at AMS
09-27: contruction started March 1961. No information about the first flight but the first flight was in November 1967
01R-19L (now 36R18L) is the oldest runway at AMS
as it existed prior to 06-24 (first flight would have been in 1938 as there is a photo of the completed runway dated that year). In 1955 teh runway was extended to be able to receive jet aircraft and again extended in 1961
01L-19R (now 36C-18C) opened on November 16th 1968. I couldn't find detailed information about the date they started contruction but I reckon it was somewhere between 1961 and 1963
BTW there's a lot of info about the construction of the airport in its early days in the book called "Tachtig jaar Schiphol: Op de drempel van de lucht" and "Schiphol Luchtvaartstad". The latter of the two books you sometimes can find in the second hand bookshop. The first is more difficult to find.