Do governments (or airport authorities) get paid for providing air traffic control for civilian aircraft?
I know the destination and origin airports can recoup costs through the airport tax/landing fees. But what about when an airplane is passing through a third country? For example, let's say a plane is flying from the UK to the US, and passing through Canadian airspace along the way. Does that airline pay a fee to the Canadians for air traffic control services? Or do they intentionally fly just outside a country's airspace to avoid this? I'm sure the issue still arises in other areas, like flights across Europe that cross over "third" countries along the way.