Boeing 727 A Tribute By Wings
Hi folks, I was asked to edit my post by the moderators, as some of the photos used in the accident part of my thread was linked to Jetphotos. I have now edited the post and I will repost it so that all members can enjoy.
Well after receiving such positive feedback in regards to my previous Tributes to the Tupolev Tu-144 http://www.airliners.net/discussions...general_aviation/read.main/3033740
and the Lockheed L1011 http://www.airliners.net/discussions...general_aviation/read.main/3035490
I have now dedicated my third tribute to what I have to consider to be the best looking airplane that Boeing has produced until this present day. So let's all take a brief look back into the history of this magnificent and only three engined jet produced by Boeing.
The 727 design arose as a compromise between United Airlines, American Airlines, and Eastern Air Lines over the configuration of a jet airliner to service smaller cities which often had shorter runways and correspondingly smaller passenger demand. On December 5, 1960 Boeing announced the production of its 727, the first commercial three engined jet. United and Eastern Airlines would be the first airlines to commit to the 727 program by placing orders for 40 frames each.
The 727 proved very successful with airlines worldwide partly because of its capability to take off and land on smaller runways while still flying medium range routes. This effectively allowed airlines to attract passengers from cities with large populations but smaller airports to worldwide tourist destinations. One of the features that gave the 727 its ability to land on shorter runways was its unique wing design. Through flap extension and leading edge slat deployment, the 727 could almost double its wing surface area, allowing it to fly with great stability at very slow speeds. The 727 was designed to be used at smaller, regional airports, so independence from ground facilities was an important requirement. This gave rise one of the 727's most distinctive features: the built-in airstair that drops from the rear underbelly of the fuselage.
Even though the jet age essentially began in 1952 with the introduction of the British-designed de DeHavilland Comet. Several jetliners, including the Boeing 707, were developed before the 727, but none came close to its sales record. Boeing original forecast for the 727 was for 250 frames, but the 727 would become the best-selling airliner in history when orders passed the 1,000 mark, but as it turned out this figure would come to rest at a total of 1,831 deliveries, with only the B737 and latter on the A320 breaking this record. Its unprecedented low-speed landing and takeoff performance along with its luxuriously wide fuselage would make the 727 by far the most popular aircraft in the world through the first 35 years of jet
On February 9, 1963 the first 727 took to the skies. With the following flight crew:
Capt. Lew Wallick; Co-Pilot Dix Loesch; Flight Engineer M.K. Shulenberger
In late 1963, the first of a fleet of 76 Boeing 727 three-engine fan jets was delivered to Eastern. Regular schedules were flown with a 727, named the Whisperjet, on February 1, 1964 Eastern made the first revenue flight with the 727. In December 1966, Eastern began adding 25 Boeing 727-QC "Quick Change" jets, an airliner that can be converted from a passenger carrier to all-cargo in a matter of minutes. The planes carry passengers during the day and cargo at night.
Introduced into service by United Airlines in February 1964, the airline would operate the first 727 built, until January 13 1991, when it made it's last commercial flight and was donated to the Museum of Flight in Seattle.
The 727, like all Boeing jetliners, was continually modified to fit the changing market. It began with the -100 series, of which 407 were sold. This was followed by the -100C convertible that featured a main-deck side cargo door, allowing it to carry either cargo pallets or passengers -- or a combination of both -- on the main deck. Boeing built 164 of these.
The 727-200, introduced in December 1967, had increased gross weight and a 20-foot longer fuselage that could accommodate as many as 189 passengers in an all-tourist configuration. In all its variations, 1,245 of the -200s were sold.
108 feet (32.91 m)
153 feet 2 inches (46.69 m)
34 feet (10.36 m)
Gross Maximum Taxi Weight:
Standard: 191,000 pounds (86,600 kg)
Optional: 210,000 pounds (95,300 kg)
Three Pratt & Whitney JT8D turbofans:
-15 rated at 15,500 pounds thrust
-17 rated at 16,000 pounds thrust
-17R rated at 17,400 pounds thrust
570 to 605 mph (890 to 965 km/h)
30,000 to 40,000 feet (9,144 to 12,192 m)
1,500 to 2,500 miles (2,750 to 4,020 km)
148 to 189
8,186 U.S. gallons (31,000 L) standard at lower gross weights
9,806 U.S. gallons (37,020 L) standard for 208,000 pounds
BOEING 727 VARIANTS727-100
The first production model.
Is the Convertible version. The seats can be removed and cargo placed on the main deck.
stands for Quick Change. This is similar to the Convertible version, however design changes allowed much faster transformation time.
stands for Quiet Freighter. United Parcel Service cargo conversion, re-engined with Stage III-compliant Rolls-Royce Tay turbofans.
Stretched version of the 727.
Stretched 20 feet ahead of the wings. MTOW and range increased.
All freight version of the 727-200.
+ 1 (Boeing Test Aircraft.)
08.16.1965 United Airlines Boeing 727-22 30/30
The aircraft crashed into Lake Michigan while approaching Chicago. Cause Unknown.
11.08.1965 American Airlines Boeing 727-23 58/62
The aircraft was on a visual approach for runway 18 at the Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport in rain and clouds when the crew lost sight of the runway. While attempting to tune in the ILS frequency and become stabilized on the approach, the aircraft descended below glideslope and impacted the southern bank of the Ohio River, four miles short of the runway.
11.11.1965 United Airlines Boeing 727-22 43/91
The aircraft impacted approach lights short of the runway while attempting to land in adverse weather conditions.
02.04.1966 All Nippon Airways Boeing 727-81 133/133
The aircraft crashed into Tokyo Bay some seven miles from Tokyo's Haneda International Airport in clear weather conditions while on approach. Cause undetermined.
07.19.1967 Piedmont Airlines Boeing 727-22 82/82
The aircraft crashed after colliding with a private Cessna 310 approximately 8 nautical miles north-east of the Ashville, North Carolina, Airport. The Cessna had deviated from its IFR clearance. 79 killed aboard the 727, 3 aboard the Cessna.
02.16.1968 Civil Air Transport Boeing 727-92C 21/63+1
The aircraft crashed short of the runway at night. Investigation revealed that the pilots were not qualified to fly the aircraft.
01.05.1969 Ariana Afghan Airlines Boeing 727-113C 50/65+2
The aircraft crashed while attempting to land in low visibility conditions. The flaps were not extended far enough to maintain flight at final approach speed.
01.18.1969 United Airlines Boeing 727-22C 28/28
The aircraft crashed into Santa Monica Bay shortly after takeoff at night in poor weather. The no.3 electrical generator was listed as inoperative before the flight commenced. Shortly after takeoff, the flight crew received an engine fire warning on the no.1 engine, which was shut down. The no.2 electrical generator - the only one left functioning - was unable to handle the excess load due to the failure of the aircraft's other two generators, and shut down, leading to a loss of all electrical power aboard the aircraft. The crew almost immediately became disoriented and lost control of the aircraft.
06.04.1969 Mexicana Airlines Boeing 727-64 79/79
The aircraft crashed on approach after overflying their clearance limit by several miles in poor weather.
09.21.1969 Mexicana Airlines Boeing 727-64 27/118
The aircraft crashed approximately one mile short of the runway while attempting to land.
12.28.1970 Trans Caribbean Airways Boeing 727-2A7 2/55
During landing, the aircraft touched down hard, bounced to an altitude of 75 feet, and then stalled onto the runway, collapsing the landing gear. The aircraft overran the runway and impacted an embankment.
07.30.1971 All Nippon Airways Boeing 727-281 163/164
The aircraft crashed after colliding with a Japan Air Force F86 fighter jet in flight. The pilot of the F86 ejected, was tried for homicide, and found not guilty.
09.04.1971 Alaska Airlines Boeing 727-192 111/111
The aircraft crashed into terrain while executing a non-precision NDB approach to land in Juneau. Premature start of final descent by the Captain.
02.21.1973 Libya Arab Airlines Boeing 727-224 110/113
The aircraft crashed after being hit by a surface to air missile fired by an Israeli fighter jet. The Boeing had strayed off course and violated Israel's airspace, prompting the attack.
09.15.1974 Air Vietnam Boeing 727-121C 75/75
The aircraft crashed after several grenades were detonated by hijackers when the pilot refused to meet their demands.
12.01.1974 Northwest Orient Boeing 727-251 3/3
The aircraft's pitot tubes (which measure ram air and thus provide an air speed indication) were iced over after the crew failed to activate the anti-ice system in freezing rain conditions. This led to erroneous airspeed indications, a stall, and a spin from which the crew was unable to recover. Pilot error.
12.01.1974 Trans World Airlines Boeing 727-231 92/92
The aircraft crashed on approach to runway 30 at Washington D.C.'s Dulles International Airport. Flying a non-precision VOR approach in heavy winds and rain, the crew misidentified the final approach fix and began to descend prematurely, impacting terrain approximately 14 miles from the runway.
06.24.1975 Eastern Air Lines Boeing 727-225 115/124
The aircraft, on a flight from New Orleans to New York's John F. Kennedy Airport, struck approach lights during a runway 22L ILS approach. The aircraft broke up and caught fire.
04.05.1976 Alaska Airlines Boeing 727-81 1/57
The aircraft overran the runway while landing after the Captain attempted to go around at the last moment. Crew error.
04.27.1976 American Airlines Boeing 727-095 37/88
The Captain initiated a go around after touching down 1/3 down the runway. When no acceleration forces were felt, the throttles were once again retarded and an attempt was made to stop. The aircraft overran the runway with a nose-up attitude of 9° and at a speed of 132 knots.
09.20.1976 Turkish Airlines Boeing 727-2F2 154/154
The aircraft crashed into high terrain while on approach to Antalya, Turkey. The crew was using charts for the incorrect airport.
11.19.1977 TAP Portugal Boeing 727-282 131/164
The aircraft landed long and was unable to stop before running off a cliff at the departure end of the runway. Crew error - excessive speed during landing.
05.08.1978 National Airlines Boeing 727-235 3/58
The aircraft crashed into Pensacola Bay, 3 miles short of the runway, while executing a non-precision approach to land at the Pensacola Regl. Airport. Pilot error in failing to maintain MDA (minimum descent altitude) until the runway environment was in sight.
09.25.1978 Pacific Southwest Airlines Boeing 727-214 137/137 + 7
The aircraft crashed into the residential area of North Park after colliding with a Cessna 172 (Gibbs Flight Service) while making a visual approach to runway 27. ATC failure.
03.14.1979 Alia Royal Jordanian Airlines Boeing 727-2D3 45/64
The aircraft crashed during landing. Windshear.
01.21.1980 Iran National Airlines Boeing 727-86 128/128
The aircraft crashed while attempting to land in a snowstorm. Failure of the ILS equipment at a critical point during the approach.
04.12.1980 Transbrasil Boeing 727-27C 55/58
The aircraft crashed while attempting to land in a thunderstorm. Windshear.
04.25.1980 Danair Boeing 727-64 146/146
The aircraft crashed while in a holding pattern. The pilow overflew the clearance limits of the hold which put the aircraft into an area of high terrain.
06.08.1982 VASP Boeing 727-212A 137/137
The aircraft crashed while on a nighttime visual approach to land at Fortaleza. With the runway in sight to his right, the Captain continued the approach despite warnings from the First Officer of terrain ahead.
07.09.1982 Pan American World Airways Boeing 727-235 145/145 + 8
The aircraft crashed on takeoff from runway 10 at New Orleans International Airport. Rising to a height of approximately 100 feet, the aircraft encountered severe windshear and descended into a residential area.
01.16.1983 Turkish Airlines Boeing 727-2F2 47/67
The aircraft crashed short of the runway while attempting to land in snow and freezing fog.
12.07.1983 Iberia Boeing 727-256 51/93
While on its departure roll, the aircraft collided with an Aviaco DC-9 that had accidently entered the runway. Poor signage and a lack of ground radar contributed to the accident.
01.01.1985 Eastern Air Lines Boeing 727-225 29/29
The aircraft crashed into terrain at FL200. Crew error in not adhering to prescribed flight track. CFIT.
02.19.1985 Iberia Boeing 727-256 148/148
The aircraft impacted a television antenna and crashed into terrain while on approach to runway 30 at Bilbao, Spain. The left wing separated, and the aircraft crashed at about 3400ft. As the aircraft approached the rapidly rising terrain, the Captain was heard to yell 'shut up!' at the Ground Proximity Warning System several times as it sounded terrain alerts.
03.31.1986 Mexicana Airlines Boeing 727-264 167/167
The aircraft was climbing through FL290 for FL330 when a faulty tire exploded in the right main wheel well. Parts of the tire damaged the the aircraft's hydraulic system causing a loss of control.
04.02.1986 Trans World Airlines Boeing 727-231 4/121
Four passengers were ejected from the aircraft after a bomb exploded, tearing a hole in the fuselage and causing a rapid decompression.
02.27.1988 Talia Airways Boeing 727-2H9A 15/15
The aircraft crashed into terrain on approach. The pilot descended below the minimum safe altitude in an attempt to conduct a visual approach despite low ceilings. Crew error.
03.17.1988 Avianca Boeing 727-21 143/143
The aircraft impacted terrain shortly after takeoff. Non-crewmember in the cockpit who distracted the flight crew considerably from their duties.
08.31.1988 Delta Air Lines Boeing 727-232 14/108
The aircraft crashed while attempting to depart runway 18L at DFW
. Failure of the crew to ensure that the flaps/slats were properly configured for takeoff. Contributing was the failure of the takeoff warning horn.
10.21.1989 TAN Boeing 727-224 127/146
The aircraft crashed short of the runway while attempting to land in heavy rain and high winds. Crew error.
09.11.1990 Faucett Boeing 727-247 18/18
The aircraft was forced to ditch into the North Atlantic after running out of fuel. Crew error, improper fuel planning.
12.22.1992 Libyan Arab Airlines Boeing 727-2L5 157/157
The aircraft collided with a Lybian MiG23 fighter jet while attempting to land. Failure of both pilots to practice 'see and avoid' procedures of VFR flight.
05.19.1993 SAM Colombia Boeing 727-46 132/132
The aircraft impacted terrain while approaching Cordova Airport. Improper vectors from Air Traffic Control put the aircraft into an area of high terrain.
11.07.1996 Aviation Development Corporation Boeing 727-231 143/143
The ADC aircraft was flying at FL240 en route from Port Harcourt to Lagos. At the same time a Triax aircraft had departed Lagos and was flying at FL160 towards Enugu. The Lagos controller had terminated contact with the Triax aircraft when the ADC crew requested to descend. The permission to descend was delayed to allow an ELF Petroleum business jet to pass beneath the 727 at FL210. When the controller finally cleared the ADC flight to descend, he thought he had cleared to aircraft to FL100 at an earlier stage, but the aircraft was still flying at FL240. When the ADC aircraft descended through FL160, the TCAS alarm sounded. To avoid a head-on collision the flightcrew immediately took evasive action. During this maneuver, the Boeing rolled to an excessive bank angle and conrol was lost. Within 16 seconds speed had increased from 280kts to almost the speed of sound. The aircraft crashed and disintegrated on impact.
02.09.1998 American Airlines Boeing 727-223 0/121
The aircraft crashed while attempting to land on runway 14R at Chicago's O'Hare International Airport. Touching down 200 feet prior to the threshold into the approach lights, the landing gear was sheared off.
03.19.1998 Ariana Afghan Airlines Boeing 727-228 45/45
The aircraft crashed while on approach. Controlled flight into terrain. The crew descended below the minimum safe altitude for the area in which they were operating.
04.20.1998 Transportes Aéreos Militares Ecuatorianos Boeing 727-230 53/53
The aircraft crashed into terrain shortly after takeoff from El Dorado International Airport. Failure of the flight crew to execute a right turn shortly after takeoff, as prescribed in the departure publications, even after being warned by Air Traffic Control that they had failed to make the required turn. The aircraft was operating for Air France.
10.10.1998 Congo Airlines Boeing 727-030 41/41
The aircraft crashed after being shot down by rebels. Second accident in two weeks involving an aircraft being shot down by a surface to air missile.
07.07.1999 Lufthansa Cargo Airlines Boeing 727-243 5/5
Lufthansa Flight 8533 departed Kathmandu at 19.46h for a flight to New Delhi. Some five minutes after takeoff the aircraft crashed in flames in the Champadevi hills at the 7550ft level, were it should have been at an altitude of 9500ft. Kathmandu Airport is located at 6250ft. Initial reports identified the captain as Gonjalez, flight officer as Shahni, flight engineer as Vargava and the two others as Singh and Roy. The plane was carrying about 21 tons of cargo, mostly woolen carpet, when it crashed. Weather at the time was drizzly conditions with ground temperature of 22 C. PROBABLE CAUSE: Failure to the adhere to Standard Instrument Departure Procedure (SID) by the crew and failure of the controllers to warn the flight. Contributing factors were incomplete departure briefing, the unexpected airspeed decay during the initial right climbing turn, inadequate intra cockpit crew coordination and communication, and the slow response to the premonition given by air traffic controller.
01.05.2001 Air Gemini Cargo Boeing 727-46F 0/10 + 1
The aircraft developed engine problems on takeoff and crashed during an emergency landing attempt, killing a man who had stopped to relieve himself close to runway. The aircraft was written off as a result of the accident.
01.28.2002 Transportes Aéreos Militares Ecuatorianos Boeing 727-134 92/92
TAME flight 120 departed Quito at 10:03am on the first leg of its scheduled Quito-Tulcán-Cali (Colombia) flight. Radio contact with the aircraft was lost at 10:23am as it approached Tulcán. The aircraft crashed near the Colombian city of Ipiales, approximately 20 miles north of Tulcán, in a crater near the top of the 15,626ft Cumbal Volcano. The wreckage of the aircraft was found by aerial search some 24 hours after the initial disappearance of the plane. The weather in the heavily mountainous region was reported to be foggy around the time of the accident.
07.26.2002 Federal Express Boeing 727-232AF 0:3
The aircraft crashed at 5:43am local time while attempting to land at Tallahassee Regional Airport on a cargo flight from Memphis, TN
. With the Tallahassee Airport control tower closed due to the early-morning hour, the flight crew received clearance from Jacksonville Center for a visual approach to runway 9 at 5:36am. The first impact mark was on a tree, about 70 feet high and 3,100 feet from the end of the runway. The plane first hit the ground about 2,100 feet from the end of the runway, and the first piece of wreckage - a leading edge flap - was found approximately 200 feet from the initial tree-strike point. The aircraft's landing gear was down at the time of the accident. The 727 skidded to a stop about 1,000 feet from the end of the runway and caught fire. The flight crew escaped major injury.
12.25.2003 Union des Transports Aériens de Guinée Boeing 727-223 151/163
The aircraft, on a chartered passenger flight from Cotonou to Beirut, crashed while attempting to takeoff on runway 24 at approximately 1415 GMT. Witnesses reported that the aircraft impacted a building, exploded, and crashed into the sea. Weather at the time of the accident was good, with airport officials reporting light winds and clear conditions. Various media outlets report that the plane may have been overloaded.
*One hundred and one customers purchased new 727s from Boeing
*The 727 is equipped with a retractable tail skid which is designed to protect the aircraft in the event of an over-rotation on takeoff.
*Despite the exterior noise, the 727 has a relatively quiet passenger cabin due to the placement of the engines at the rear of the aircraft.
*In the early 1960s, Eastern Air Lines and other airlines began calling their 727s "Whisperjets", allegedly because a passenger seated forward in First Class, in theory, could only hear the rear-mounted turbofan jet engines as a whisper in the background. This feature also permitted passengers to whisper to each other. Before Boeing built 727s, hearing someone whispering aboard a jet plane was not possible.
*Post-production winglets have also been installed on many 727's as a means of noise reduction as part of so called "Quiet Wing" Kits and for added fuel economy.
*Every few years, 727 cargo planes accidentally tip back and wind up sitting on their tails because the planes are unloaded improperly and the Airstair in the tail is not deployed. All three turbofan jet engines are all mounted at the tail of the plane making the aircraft rear end heavy.
*For many years, the 727-200 had the most heavily loaded tires of any production aircraft, with a maximum rated load of 45,240 lb (20,520 kg) per main landing gear tire when the aircraft is fully loaded. The maximum tire load of the 727 was only recently exceeded by heavier variants of the Boeing 777.
*Sept. 18, 1984 Last 727 delivered (a 727-200F to Federal Express) after 22 years of production; 1,832 total built.
April 6, 1983 Last 727 passenger airplane delivered to USAir.
*On Dec. 5, 1977, the worldwide 727 fleet carried its one billionth (1,000,000,000) passenger -- a mark never attained before by a commercial aircraft. Today, the number has reached well over 4 billion.
Aviation Is A Passion.