VirginA340: I don't know where you've got this idea about Europeans suddenly discovering some deep rooted but dorment aeronortical nationalism when the Berlin Wall fell. I'm sorry, but sitting in the travel agents buying seats, that great historic event was the last thing on peoples minds. You mentioned PA, between 1986 and 1991 PA flew more people across the Atlantic than anyone (except for 6 months after Lockerbie), seeing substantial growth (despite less Americans travelling to Europe because of terrorism fears). I should assume in that case, there were more Europeans aboard them, so no aero nationalism (which is where I began!). Many US Companies banned their staff from flying US Airlines overseas because of terrorist fears at the end of the 80's early 90's. When I last flew TWA (Feb from CDG-JFK rtn) Americans were a definate minority easily 2:1.
If you look at TW's route maps from after the Intra European flights were dropped (1992/93), you'll see many of the cities (eg. Athens, Rome, Cairo, Tel Aviv) gained more direct services, or were operated as a same plane service coupled with another destination.