Hey there! I was just in Amsterdam a couple of weeks ago, and I'd probably say that going into the city for a couple of hours is quite feasible. The train from AMS
to Centraal Station is probably closer to 20 minutes (and certainly no more than a half-hour, one way). There are a few things you can do with that amount of time, I feel. If you're into museums, catch a tram to Museumplein and choose between the Rijksmuseum (natl. art gallery, very nice!) or the Van Gogh Museum (my personal favourite of the two). Another option would be to stroll down the canal Prisengracht (slightly west of Centraal Station) for a half-hour or so until you get to the Anne Frank House. The line to get in might be a little long for you to go in, but its an impressive structure to look at in any case, and the surrounding area is lovely!
What you would do depends on whether you're willing to see the city on the fly, but I'd venture to say that 2-3 hours in Amsterdam gives you a plethrora of options to work with. Go for it, and have fun in Turkey, as well!