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Posts: 21
Joined: Wed Jan 31, 2001 8:47 am

Understanding Arrivals Process

Tue Feb 13, 2001 9:09 am

I often listen to the ATC for YYZ Arrivals and was wondering if someone could help me understand a little better rhe terminology that I hear.

Typically a plane will check in with its call sign and report altitude and will usually say something like, :We have whisky...or we have x-ray." What does this mean exactly. How far is a plane typically from the airport at 13000ft or so.

As they are brought in their cleared to different altitudes and have their speed reduced. What is a base leg?

Finally at about 3000 to 4000ft ATC will say, "AC868 cleared for ILS on rwy 24L contact tower at..."
At this point is the aircraft flying on the localizer on final approach. And at what point do they hit the outer marker?

Thanks for any help you can offer.

RE: Understanding Arrivals Process

Tue Feb 13, 2001 10:15 am

Alpha, bravo, x-ray are names given to atis updates. Atis updates provide airport information such as wind and weather conditions, runways being used, and other worthwhile info for pilots. Atis updates usually get updated every hour thus the changing of the names. As for your question of the location of aircraft at FL130 (13000 feet), this is hard to say because every airport has different approach conditions. But usually they are 10-15 minutes out. The last two questions are probably best answered by a pilot.
Posts: 165
Joined: Tue Dec 19, 2000 6:48 am

RE: Understanding Arrivals Process

Tue Feb 13, 2001 10:17 am

X-Ray, Whiskey, etc: Most large airports have an ATIS (Automated Terminal Information System, I think). This is a repeating recording that gives basic weather info, the active runway and approach and any other pertinent information like equipment outages or construction. This recording is generally changed once an hour and each new recording is named with the phonetic alphabet. For example, the 0800 recording will be Alpha, 0900 will be Bravo, etc. It is good piloting practice to listen to ATIS before contacting the tower, and if you call in with Whiskey/X-ray/etc. the controller does not have to relay that info over the active frequency.

Distance @ 13,000 feet: This will vary with the elevation of the airport and the path the plane is taking into the area. But ... a 3 degree glidepath extended up to 13,000 feet would be about 70 nautical miles. This would be the absolute max distance.

Base Leg A standard VFR traffic pattern around a runway has several legs, each with a name. The base leg is the leg right before final. This can be a "right base" or a "left base" depending on the direction you turn onto final.

In General Look on eBay for a Jeppesen IFR textbook. An older edition will work fine, and it will be a good reference for these type of questions in the future.

RE: Understanding Arrivals Process

Tue Feb 13, 2001 10:20 am

The outer marker is normally around 10-15 miles
Posts: 165
Joined: Tue Dec 19, 2000 6:48 am

RE: Understanding Arrivals Process

Tue Feb 13, 2001 10:32 am

Actually, the outer markers are usually 4-6 miles.

DCA ILS 1 4.6 nm
IAD ILS 12 5.6 nm
IAD ILS 19L 3.9 nm
IAD ILS 19R 3.6 nm
ROA ILS 33 4.1 nm
ORF ILS 5 3.6 nm
BWI ILS 15L 4.6 nm
BWI ILS 15R 3.8 nm
EWR ILS 4L 5.9 nm
EWR ILS 4R 4.8 nm
CRW ILS 5 4.7 nm
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RE: Understanding Arrivals Process

Tue Feb 13, 2001 11:35 am

As Mit states, OM's are usually co-located at the FAF and are about 4 miles to threshold.

A nominal 3 degree descent from 39 n.m would start at about 43 nautical miles on a flat earth, slightly higher (very slightly) due to curvature.

As far as arrivals go at CYYZ, I'm surprised those are your only questions! I would expect that if you listen to it for awhile, you'll be asking "why do they tell the airplanes they're landing on one runway, then when they're all set up, they change it?"!!!

Best Regards,

Posts: 165
Joined: Tue Dec 19, 2000 6:48 am

RE: Understanding Arrivals Process

Tue Feb 13, 2001 11:40 am

Buff's right about the 3 degree descent distance from 13,000 feet. It's about 40 nm. Used 3% instead of 3 degrees for the first calculation. Whoops  Smile
Posts: 417
Joined: Sun Apr 09, 2000 2:34 pm

RE: Understanding Arrivals Process

Tue Feb 13, 2001 11:57 am

As for the last question. You're probably refering to something like "Contact the Tower 118.7 over Xray" Xray is an NDB on the Localizer for 23 at CYYZ. It's exactly 3.7nm from the runway. Other ones you'll hear are:

NOAHA (not and NDB, just a fix) - 4.8nm from 24L
Juliett (NDB) - 4.1nm from 06R
Tango (NDB) - 4nm from 05

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