Since I posted the "word", I feel obliged to answer your question.
Hyper-sustemptators are the mechanisms that increase the wings sustemptation ability. They are the flaps (slats if they are on the attack edge of the wing)
But let's see some basic physics, first. Explained very simply.
Aircrafts keep flying because wings keep them up there.
The way it works is the wing having a curvature.
This curvature makes air flowing along the upper side to have a longer path, than the air flowing along the lower side.
It causes a lower pressure on the upper side, or higher pressure on the lower side of the wing (differential).
When this differential is bigger than the weight of the airplane, it lifts.
Off course, it depends, among others, on the air speed. The higher the speed, the higher the differential.
The wings of modern jets are designed for efficiency at very high speeds (cruising speeds above 850 kms/h approx. 475 kts., or 530 mph), but unluckily it means that they are less efficient at lower speeds. Most of the airplanes have their lowest clean speed around 160 kts. Lowest clean speed means the slowest speed that can be maintained on the air without deploying any flaps or slats. Under this speed, sustemptation must be increased.
As said before, the sustemptation is generated by a differential of pressures. And increasing sustemptation can be done only by increasing this differential.
Luckily, this differential can be increased by different ways:
1.- Increasing speed
2.- Increasing wing surface
3.- Increasing wing curvature.
Of course, when take-off and landing, speed is not enough, but these devices mounted on the wings can increase both surface and curvature.
The ones in front go forward and the ones back go backwards. This way the wing surface is significantly increased.
But, once we have moving parts mounted on the wing, it is quite easy to give them not only horizontal motion, but a component of vertical, too. This way, when they go forward and back, they go some (quite) down, too, increasing, logically, the wing curvature.
Which results in significantly increased lift.
Ok. I think I answered 3 of your 4 questions. The fourth question, how do they affect A/C performance, is as follows:
When the hyper-sustemptators are deployed, the wing is not "clean". They increase air drag, and cause turbulences both under and behind the wing. Therefore they are reployed as soon as the airplane has overpassed 160 kias (knots indicated air speed), or deployed only when it is strictly necessary to maintain speeds below the "clean limit".
A little out of the exact topic, but this is also the reason why the T/Os and landings are made "against" the wind:
If the wind is 15 knots the opposite direction, the airplane will have reached the rotation speed (Vr) 15 knots sooner. Meaning:
If an airplane's Vr is 100 kts, and the wind is 15 kts, airplane will be suitable for rotation when its speed is going to be 85 kts ground speed. Or, otherwise said, when the airplane is stopped at the beginning of the runway waiting for T/O clearance, it is already having a "useful" speed of 15 kts. Or, if a 100-kt. wind could be continuous, the airplane could rotate and lift... WITHOUT MOVING!!!
Hope I helped.