If you are asking what kind of math would be used on a daily basis and how it's applied in the airline world-
IT'S BASIC ALGEBRA.
Physics is good to broaden your knowledge base, and usually required to get a degree, but it's not necessary to be a pilot. All the numbers an aviator needs are in either in their head, in their books/tables/charts or can be calculated using basic algebra. (Using a calculator or rounding off and doing it in your head).
Fuel planning, temperature conversions, reciprocal headings, turn radius, crosswind components, time-speed-distance problems, calculating true airspeed, calculating a VDP, the 60-to-1 rule, and figuring descents & crossing restrictions are the most common kinds of calculating that pilots do, mostly in their head.
There is even a book written on this subject entitled, "Mental Math for Pilots" by Ronald McElroy. It's published by Cage Consulting, which is a company that helps aspiring pilots with their airline interviews.
Here is a link to the online catalog where you can buy this excellent softcover book:
http://scdamlib.securesites.com/cgi-bin/cagemstore/staging/shop.pl?sid=652b011b08fa5d0ae7f105efdd22f393&fid=shop_display_products&category_id=1