Typically, if the wind is calm, or less than 5 knots or so, the airport will transfer activities to the runway which causes the least noise pollution to the surrounding area. This may also take into account several aspects including things like who's-living-where. In Geneva for example, where there is only one runway, They will generally use runway 23 if they can, and only switch to the reciprical 05 heading when the winds require, as takeoffs on 05 make a lot of noise over some pretty nice lake-front properties, while 23 causes noise over mainly industrial areas and lower-income housing.
Other airports with multiple runways might "share the noise", with one runway being used for a while, and switching to another later in the day. I think I heard that Heathrow or CDG do something like this.
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