A html link to an online copy of the Airman's Information Manual is here: http://www2.faa.gov/atpubs/
then click on the Airmans Information Manual link (it's the first one). But I find it hard to read on the computer and much prefer my own paper copy.
Keep in mind that it's not a regulation so it's not mandatory to use those procedures, but it's what we usually use, although some things in the AIM are from the regulations, so those parts are required.... Although I think this link http://www2.faa.gov/atpubs/AIM/chap4toc.htm
has what you're looking for in terms of R/T procedures and operating at airports.
The controller has no idea whether you have an instrument rating or not. So if you sound like you know what you are talking about (and don't act like a bonehead), then he will do what he can to accommodate your requests as long as workload permits. e.g. you call up a controller and then request an instrument approach to an airport, "requesting ILS 04L to JFK" (This specific request will probably get disapproved. so you have to ask for approaches at other less busy airports.) He'll want to know if it's a full procedure or just vectors to final, and what your intentions are, landing or go missed and shoot another approach, which approach do you want next, etc... Have your instructor go thru this with you (or you can also work on your instrument rating as well if you have time. or maybe check into seeing if you can get the instrument rating based on a foreign flight certificate.)
When I call up a controller (frequency congestion permitting) I keep the controller informed as to the next two approaches I desire, e.g. "requesting NDB-A to MVL full procedure, followed by ILS 17 to MPV, full stop." (or something similar). He'll usually approve the request give me missed approach instructions if he wants me to do something different than the published missed approach instructions.
If you're VFR and approaching an airport with a control tower, then the controller will tell you what to do, "report 3 mile left base for 13" so you don't do any overhead joins, (you'll probably freak him out if you do).... if you want to do pattern work, tell him, he'll accommodate if traffic allows. If you're approaching an airport without a control tower, you make your traffic call on the UNICOM/CTAF frequency state your intentions, maybe ask for a traffic advisory (you may or may not get an answer) You can overfly look at the segmented circle to figure out the winds and runway then enter the traffic pattern. I personally fly at least the downwind, base and final. If I am in position I'll fly something called the 45 entry, the procedure is explained in the AIM, but usually I'm not that strategically positioned and I'm on the other side, so I fly the midfield crosswind turning to downwind. But entering straight into downwind is acceptable.
If you go up to Canada though (I don't know where you're going to be flying), the airport traffic pattern (for airports without control towers) is different depending on whether you have a radio or not. (I forget what they call their frequencies, ATF (airport traffic freq?) meaning you don't have to have a radio to land here and can use no radio landing procedures, MTF (mandatory traffic freq?) meaning you have to have a radio to land at this particular airport and you can't use no radio landing procedures. But basically in Canada if the traffic pattern in a left pattern you cannot make a right turn anywhere in the traffic pattern even though you might need to make a right turn to join the left traffic pattern. You just overfly, then do all sorts of contorted left turns to get into the proper position to do the traffic pattern. It can be a pain sometimes.
In the US we're much more relaxed --flight procedures and R/T procedures. Just keep talking letting everyone know what you're doing and look out for the idiot who's not using the radio and decides to fly a straight in approach without flying the pattern.
But I think you can use ICAO procedures it should be okay, we do say "point" rather than "decimal" though.
Your multi-engine instructor should be able to fill you in on what we do here in the US as well...
(Apologize if I've typed too much... As Jetguy said, this just scratches the surface...)
Woodreau / KMVL
Bonus animus sit, ab experientia. Quod salvatum fuerit de malis usu venit judicium.