That post shows quite a serious lack of understanding on just about every point, so I wont address them individually, but explain the different ATC services in the UK instead.
There are 3 main categories:
The most basic service is an Air-Ground
Station. Air-Ground services have their callsigns suffixed with RADIO.
They can not give instructions
. For example, a typical pre-takeoff conversation might be:
Ready for departure.
Air-Ground Station> G-CD
Traffic is a Seneca on short final, surface wind 240, 10 knots.
is issued. It is 100% the responsibility of the pilot to look out for traffic, look at the windsock, and make sure he/she is at the correct runway.
It would be very ignorant to call these airfields "Mickey Mouse". There are many substantial airfields who have ATSU's which become Air-Ground stations after-hours or when there is nobody qualified available to offer a different service.
The next level of service is the FIS (Flight Information Service)
. These services have callsigns suffixed with the word 'INFORMATION'. FISO's (FIS Officers) can give instructions
only to aircraft and vehicles on the manoeuvring area (ie. on the ground). Everything else they say is purely information, for the pilot to act on however he/she sees fit.
When they say "Land at your discretion, surface wind 190, 12 knots", that is not a clearance
. It is still the Pilot In Command's responsibility to make sure he/she is lined up on the correct runway, it is clear of other aircraft etc etc.
A typical converstaion with a landing aircraft might be:
Roger, Report final.
Aircraft> Wilco G-CD
Land at your discretion, surface wind 310, less than 5.
Vacated runway 24.
Taxy to stand 6 via Alpha. [this is the first actual instruction
The highest level of ATSU is a full Air Traffic Control
service. Air Traffic Controllers can issue instructions and clearances to aircraft on the ground or in flight. Their callsigns can be TOWER, GROUND, DIRECTOR, APPROACH, RADAR and a few others I can't think of at the moment.
A typical arrival miight be:
Aircraft> Eastflight 291 Final.
ATC> Eastflight 291 Clear to land
runway 06, surface wind 150, 20.
Aircraft> Clear to land runway 06, Eastflight 291.
ATC> Eastflight 291 vacate right onto Bravo.
Aircraft> Vacate right onto Bravo, Eastflight 291.
ATC> Contact Ground on 120.9.
Aircraft> Contact Ground 120.9 Eastflight 291.
Notice that on clearances and instructions (and certain other items), there is a mandatory read-back
to an ATC Service.
As for the questions:
or is the danger too big, and the airlines dont allow it.
It would be wrong to say that airfields without full ATC are less safe. That is simply wrong. The do tend to be smaller, but as I said above, the service offered can vary by the time of the day. All of that information is contained in the UK AIP which is available (free registration) on www.ais.org.uk. Go to AIP>Aerodromes>Specific and select one from the list.
I can't imaging that all airports in Africa are fully equipped and responsible, and licenced enough to give a full 'cleared to land'.
Airports that have full ATC (and can therefore give clearances) are definitely a minority even in 'civilised' countries like the UK. You would be surprised that quite a few, as you say, "Mickey Mouse" airfields in the UK have full ATC in operation. Defining the quality of airfield by the ATSU in operation isnt very helpful.
But having said that, AFIS and Air-Ground services are generally
found at smaller airfields so I cant think of any situation where an intercontinental Speedbird 747 would land with anything less than full ATC...