TheSonntag
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Did Wings Ever Fail On An Airliner?

Fri Jan 20, 2006 10:13 am

Fortunately, wings are one of the most expensive, best built, best engineered parts existing on airliners...

But I always find it very interesting that wings have to carry many tons of weight all over sudden after liftoff (before it is the gear), cope with turbulences, high and low temperatures, speeds between 0 and 1000 km/h, yet they (FORTUNATELY!) never fail...

So I have 2 questions: First, did wings ever fail (break) in flight? Needless to say, that would be catastrophic.

Second: Are wings changed, or does a DC-9 from NW (sorry, don't have a better example, don't flame me) still have the same wing as in 1968? How are wings maintained?
 
grandtheftaero
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RE: Did Wings Ever Fail On An Airliner?

Fri Jan 20, 2006 10:39 am

Quoting TheSonntag (Thread starter):
Fortunately, wings are one of the most expensive, best built, best engineered parts existing on airliners...

The engine guys would have something to say about that. The little wings inside of a jet engine glow cherry red from the intense heat of combustion and have the equivalent load of a school bus being hung from their tips due to the high rate of rotation. The materials that make them up are a combination of exotic power-metal alloys and ceramic coatings. They operate at a temperature that would turn even the strongest of super-alloys into putty if it weren't for a complex network of cooling passages. But airplanes wings are cool too  Wink

Sorry... I digress... Anyone have a real answer for TheSonntag?
 
Dougloid
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RE: Did Wings Ever Fail On An Airliner?

Fri Jan 20, 2006 10:49 am

There's a nice video floating around of a C119 wing failure during a borate bomber run in California.

How about the recent Chalks' fiasco?
If you believe in coincidence, you haven't looked close enough-Joe Leaphorn
 
TheSonntag
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RE: Did Wings Ever Fail On An Airliner?

Fri Jan 20, 2006 11:10 am

Quoting Dougloid (Reply 2):

You are right, I forgot about that terrible accident...
 
L-188
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RE: Did Wings Ever Fail On An Airliner?

Fri Jan 20, 2006 12:00 pm

Quoting TheSonntag (Thread starter):
First, did wings ever fail (break) in flight?

In the early 1970s Wien Air Alaska had a Fokker-27 break-up in mid-air over Illiamna due to a wing failure.

Quoting Dougloid (Reply 2):
There's a nice video floating around of a C119 wing failure during a borate bomber run in California.

I think you are thinking of that C-130 a couple years ago. They haven't used 119's or Borate for forest fires in years. But the 119 was retired because of wing issues.
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AR1300
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RE: Did Wings Ever Fail On An Airliner?

Fri Jan 20, 2006 1:15 pm

Quoting Dougloid (Reply 2):
How about the recent Chalks' fiasco?

IRCC, that was due to the engine ripping, thus debris and the sudden drag ripped it off.
I thing he meant wings ripping during regular flight regime, due to, let's call it fatigue.I think.

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bri2k1
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RE: Did Wings Ever Fail On An Airliner?

Fri Jan 20, 2006 1:25 pm

I don't know about during normal, straight and level flight. But, I know in Colorado in the past few years, there have been a number of incidents where wings and other major structural failures have grounded fleets of firefighting tankers, moslty retired KC-135s if I'm not mistaken. Clearly that's a huge change in the weight the wings are supporting, and after being retired from military service, they had experienced countless cycles.

Quoting TheSonntag (Thread starter):

But I always find it very interesting that wings have to carry many tons of weight all over sudden after liftoff (before it is the gear)

It's a somewhat gradual transition, since as the plane accelerates down the runway, the wings gradually produce more lift. Even though actual liftoff may occur at a measurable instant in time, the transfer of weight occurs gradually. Further, carrying fuel in the wings reduces the magnitude of the force at the wing attachment points, and carrying the engines on the wings reduces it more still.
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USAFHummer
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RE: Did Wings Ever Fail On An Airliner?

Fri Jan 20, 2006 1:38 pm

http://www.metacafe.com/watch/46388/firefighting_c_130_plane_crashes/

Here's a clip of the C-130 Herc crash referenced above...

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n234nw
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RE: Did Wings Ever Fail On An Airliner?

Fri Jan 20, 2006 2:35 pm

This one is my favorite.

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Photo © Mark Baker


Though caused by a fueling error, corrosion was a factor.
 
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HAWK21M
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RE: Did Wings Ever Fail On An Airliner?

Fri Jan 20, 2006 6:36 pm

There was a video of a Water bomber breaking up.
regds
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AmericanB763ER
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RE: Did Wings Ever Fail On An Airliner?

Fri Jan 20, 2006 7:16 pm

IIRC there were 2 crashes in the 60's involving Lockheed L-188 Electras (the one from AA the other from NW correct me if I'm wrong) due to high vibrations in one of the outer engines resulting in a large part of the wing literally breaking off inflight.


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RE: Did Wings Ever Fail On An Airliner?

Fri Jan 20, 2006 7:48 pm

GrandTheftAero (reply1) has a good point, but whilst engine conditions are extreme, they are steady state whilst a wing has to deal with constantly shifting loads, especially during turbulence. As a result of fatigue, all wings are doomed to fail at some stage. Hopefully, they are resparred, or else the plane that they are on is retired well before that point.
 
Pyrex
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RE: Did Wings Ever Fail On An Airliner?

Fri Jan 20, 2006 8:11 pm

Quoting AR1300 (Reply 5):
IRCC, that was due to the engine ripping, thus debris and the sudden drag ripped it off.
I thing he meant wings ripping during regular flight regime, due to, let's call it fatigue.I think.

Actually, according to Flight International, I believe fatigue was indeed the cause of the accident: the right wing spar had a fatigue crack that propagated.

Quoting EconoBoy (Reply 11):
GrandTheftAero (reply1) has a good point, but whilst engine conditions are extreme, they are steady state whilst a wing has to deal with constantly shifting loads, especially during turbulence. As a result of fatigue, all wings are doomed to fail at some stage

Engine conditions are not steady state... any minor unbalance of the wheels, for example, causes high cyclic forces on the shafts and bearings. Fatigue is definitely an issue in aircraft engines (maybe not as serious as creep, but still very serious).
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KevinL1011
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RE: Did Wings Ever Fail On An Airliner?

Fri Jan 20, 2006 8:40 pm

Back in the late '40's, BOAC had a structural failure in one of their Comets where the wing yoke tore away from the fuselage due to fatigue from pressurization. They found the problem by repeatedly pressurizing a test aircraft in a huge water tank. If I remember correctly, the windows were too large and the fuselage skin would tear from the window frames down to the wing mount. Not exactly a wing failure but related.
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OzLAME
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RE: Did Wings Ever Fail On An Airliner?

Fri Jan 20, 2006 8:45 pm

Every time I see that C-130 video I feel ill. I can just imagine some poor bastard kissing his wife goodbye and saying "I'm off to save people's homes, see you tonight" and then that happens.

There have been three fatigue-related wing losses in Australia that I can think of. The first was a Stinson Trimotor that had been re-engined with two engines of higher power; it crashed during WWII due to fatigue thought to be caused by the different loads imposed by the new engine configuration. The second was a de Havilland Dove that crashed in Western Australia in the early 1950s; IIRC that was determined to be due to a faulty wing design. There was also a Viscount in the '60s (also in W.A.), the cause was determined to be a bushing being incorrectly installed in a bolt hole in the wing spar. There was also a Viscount that crashed into Botany Bay in Sydney after losing a wing, but that was due to it flying into a thunderstorm.
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Oryx
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RE: Did Wings Ever Fail On An Airliner?

Fri Jan 20, 2006 8:59 pm

Quoting EconoBoy (Reply 11):
GrandTheftAero (reply1) has a good point, but whilst engine conditions are extreme, they are steady state

OK, this is off topic but no they aren't. Besides transitions in the power output stalls etc. you have turbulence and the velocity deficit behind the blades inducing instationary loads on the next row (of stators). Though I do not know how this was calculated MTU Aero Engines states that the oscillation power induced of the first row of compressor blades onto the first row of stators of an EJ200 (engine of the Eurofighter) is in the order of one megawatt.
 
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Buyantukhaa
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RE: Did Wings Ever Fail On An Airliner?

Fri Jan 20, 2006 9:08 pm

Quoting TheSonntag (Thread starter):
But I always find it very interesting that wings have to carry many tons of weight all over sudden after liftoff (before it is the gear), cope with turbulences, high and low temperatures, speeds between 0 and 1000 km/h, yet they (FORTUNATELY!) never fail...

I was told that in terms of dynamic loading, the worst stage for the wing is actually the taxiing because of the strange, low-frequent loading that it causes (as opposed to turbulence which is more high-frequent). Does anyone know more about this?

Quoting TheSonntag (Thread starter):
did wings ever fail (break) in flight?

There was an NLM F28 that had a wing come off in a thunderstorm, killing all people on board. The plane was 2 years old, so no fatigue. It experienced 6.8G! This was in The Netherlands in 1981:

http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19811006-0
http://www.airsafe.com/events/models/fokker.htm
http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vliegtuigongeval_Moerdijk (Dutch)
http://www.zero-meridean.com/ramp_sel.html#6okt81 (Dutch)


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Photo © Michel Gilliand



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Photo © Eduard Marmet

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AmericanB763ER
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RE: Did Wings Ever Fail On An Airliner?

Fri Jan 20, 2006 9:28 pm

Quoting L-188 (Reply 4):
I think you are thinking of that C-130 a couple years ago



Quoting N234NW (Reply 8):
Though caused by a fueling error, corrosion was a factor.



Quoting AmericanB763ER (Reply 10):
IIRC there were 2 crashes in the 60's involving Lockheed L-188 Electras

Is it just me or is this kind of accident bound to happen to Lockheed and Fokker-aircraft more than to other brands? Did I already mention the cracks detected in the C-5's wings structure years ago resulting in the Galaxy-fleet's wing box having to be replaced? ( this cannot be categorized as "accident" though and the C5's not an airliner either  Wink ).

Just being curious
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RE: Did Wings Ever Fail On An Airliner?

Fri Jan 20, 2006 10:47 pm

Quoting Bri2k1 (Reply 6):
moslty retired KC-135s if I'm not mistaken.

I'm pretty certain there are no retired KC-135's in service anywhere and they haven't been converted to fire surpression anywhere either.

The only big jet I know of is the Evergreen 747 being certified for water dropping.

As to the DC-9 wings being the same from birth to death, the short answer is yes, they're the same wings. There have been a couple of wing changes in instances of damage and two 86'd DC-9's were combined to make one good one in Dothan a few years ago but as a rule a catastrophic wing problem 86's the airframe.

I have to agree that it seems strange that Lockheed and Fokker have an unusually high rate of wing box problems. When I was on 141's we were always going through airspeed limitation/repair cycles.

 Smile
One may educate the ignorance from the unknowing but stupid is forever. Boswell; ca: 1533
 
jetstar
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RE: Did Wings Ever Fail On An Airliner?

Fri Jan 20, 2006 10:57 pm

Quoting AmericanB763ER (Reply 10):
IIRC there were 2 crashes in the 60's involving Lockheed L-188 Electras (the one from AA the other from NW correct me if I'm wrong) due to high vibrations in one of the outer engines resulting in a large part of the wing literally breaking off inflight.

No AA Electra ever had a wing failure, it was a Braniff Electra and the other was as stated a NW Electra.
 
SlamClick
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RE: Did Wings Ever Fail On An Airliner?

Sat Jan 21, 2006 12:37 am

Quoting Jetstar (Reply 19):
No AA Electra ever had a wing failure, it was a Braniff Electra and the other was as stated a NW Electra.

I thought there was one more in the Amazon basin in about the same era. One survivor, a 16 or so year old girl.

Quoting AmericanB763ER (Reply 17):
Is it just me or is this kind of accident bound to happen to Lockheed

There is an opinion about that says Lockheed built a very stiff wing, as compared with other transports.

I've seen three, that I can think of, C-130 wing failures after hard landings.

Quoting L-188 (Reply 4):
I think you are thinking of that C-130 a couple years ago. They haven't used 119's or Borate for forest fires in years. But the 119 was retired because of wing issues.

There was also a C-119 that had a wing fail due to aileron flutter. That was at least twenty years ago, maybe in California, but somewhere in the southwest US.

I don't know how long ago they stopped using "borate" but it was long-gone when I started flying in 1964. They were using a product called, I think, Phos-Chek which was based on di-ammonium phosphate. In between, I think they'd used bentonite clay dyed red and saturated with water. I'd bet actual borate wasn't used but maybe a couple of seasons back in the fifties and the name stuck like "black boxes" or "air pocket" stuck.

Did anyone mention Knute Rockne?
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YYZYYT
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RE: Did Wings Ever Fail On An Airliner?

Sat Jan 21, 2006 1:04 am

Not a failure as such, but a failure due to fire:
AC 621, July 5, 1970 - a DC 8 had an engine fire following an engine strike on an aborted landing; it went down when the outer portion of wing came off following a fuel tank explosion.

http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19700705-0

[Edited 2006-01-20 17:05:35]
 
SlamClick
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RE: Did Wings Ever Fail On An Airliner?

Sat Jan 21, 2006 1:20 am

Quoting USAFHummer (Reply 7):
Here's a clip of the C-130 Herc crash referenced above...

By the way, could the talking head have gotten anything else wrong?

"Explosion" in flight? All I saw was the wings fold up, the fuel escape, ignite briefly and go out as the "mixture" got too lean. The clip ends too soon or pans away from any possible post-crash fire which, I believe there was.

Makes me wonder if the guy even watched it before they ran it.
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OzLAME
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RE: Did Wings Ever Fail On An Airliner?

Sat Jan 21, 2006 4:49 am

Quoting SlamClick (Reply 20):
I thought there was one more in the Amazon basin in about the same era. One survivor, a 16 or so year old girl.

IIRC that was a Friendship, the survivor was strapped into her seat and it kind of spiralled down like a falling leaf. She then walked out of the jungle unaided,I think it took her about a month.
There have been several cases of wings being burnt off in flight. There was a Viscount lost near Winton in Queensland (birthplace of QANTAS!) that had a cabin supercharger catch fire and torch through the wing spar. And although not an airliner, an RAAF Lockheed Neptune also lost a wing on the outskirts of Sydney following an engine fire. There was also a BOAC 707 that got hit by a mountain wave near Mt. Fuji and broke up, but I think it lost it's fin and engines before the wings failed, I don't really remember.
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litz
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RE: Did Wings Ever Fail On An Airliner?

Sat Jan 21, 2006 5:28 am

Quoting Avioniker (Reply 18):
As to the DC-9 wings being the same from birth to death, the short answer is yes, they're the same wings. There have been a couple of wing changes in instances of damage and two 86'd DC-9's were combined to make one good one in Dothan a few years ago but as a rule a catastrophic wing problem 86's the airframe.

Wasn't there an AC DC9 that had a lavatory fire, destroying the fuselage, but parts of the lower fuselage, or a wing, or nose parts, (or something like that) were used to repair another aircraft? I'm pretty sure I remember wing, or a wing, being mentioned ... Or is this what's referenced above?

I also see to remember somewhere a B707 that broke up inflight due to severe turbulence (wind rotors) .... (searching) ....

From : http://www.auf.asn.au/groundschool/umodule21.html

Quote:
A wake vortex can develop in the lee of lone hills and peaks in strong, sustained wind conditions. The strong spiral turbulence can be felt at a distance ten times hill height and at an altitude considerably above hill height. A BOAC Boeing 707 suffered inflight breakup in such conditions while giving passengers a view of Mt Fuji on a cloudless day in 1966; a search and rescue aircraft recorded airframe loads of +9g /–4g when flying through the same vortex.

airdisaster.com's entry : http://www.airdisaster.com/cgi-bin/v...E&airline=British+Overseas+Airways

- litz
 
avioniker
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RE: Did Wings Ever Fail On An Airliner?

Mon Jan 23, 2006 11:19 pm

Litz

The two DC-9's were the Air Canada that burned on the runway (that may have been the lav fire) and a plane that was towed too close to a hangar where they pranged one wing going forward and wrecked the other trying to back it out.

Gotta love aviation.

 Smile
One may educate the ignorance from the unknowing but stupid is forever. Boswell; ca: 1533
 
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litz
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RE: Did Wings Ever Fail On An Airliner?

Tue Jan 24, 2006 1:47 am

Quoting Avioniker (Reply 25):

The two DC-9's were the Air Canada that burned on the runway (that may have been the lav fire) and a plane that was towed too close to a hangar where they pranged one wing going forward and wrecked the other trying to back it out.

So they changed both wings? wow ...

Can you imagine the paperwork involved in recertifying (and then tracking) that plane with such a change?

A better question ... we know the reg of the AC plane that burned with the lav fire ... what was the reg of the other plane, and is it still in service somewhere?

- litz
 
FlyingColours
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RE: Did Wings Ever Fail On An Airliner?

Tue Jan 24, 2006 3:34 am

The Iran Airforce lost a 747 in Spanish Airspace in the 1970safter it was struck by lightning and the wing failed.

http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19760509-0

And although this is the Horizontal stab and not the wing,

http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19770514-0

Phil
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avioniker
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RE: Did Wings Ever Fail On An Airliner?

Tue Jan 24, 2006 4:30 am

I can imagine the paperwork very well...
The serial number of the reconstructed aircraft is the one of the intact fuselage. It actually required very little repair. the wings had to be thoroughly opened up and resealed to ensure no high temperature damage.
As to the procedure; There is a wing removal and installation procedure in the DPS so there was very little engineering required other than the certification of the wings and fuselage as compatable with one another.
The registration number is whatever is given by the appropriate agency in the country of registry. I have no idea what it is now but the plane was flying as recently as seven years ago.
I'm afraid that my notes on the project are deep in the inaccessable recesses of my "black hole" basement. Sorry
If you can find anyone in Dothan I'm sure they'll have the numbers readily available. Those guys are quite justifiably proud of their many "firsts":
1st Non-Boeing 747 Cargo conversion completion, NASA Shuttle trainer dual nose/cockpit aircraft, 1st Non-Boeing 727 Pass to Freight STC, 1st and only 727-200 Combi conversion
They used to have a saying down there that "if someone parked a nuclear submarine in their lot they'd figure out a way to get it running and put a cargo door in it".
 Smile

Quoting Litz (Reply 26):
So they changed both wings? wow ...

Can you imagine the paperwork involved in recertifying (and then tracking) that plane with such a change?

A better question ... we know the reg of the AC plane that burned with the lav fire ... what was the reg of the other plane, and is it still in service somewhere?
One may educate the ignorance from the unknowing but stupid is forever. Boswell; ca: 1533
 
FredT
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RE: Did Wings Ever Fail On An Airliner?

Tue Jan 24, 2006 6:26 am

Quoting Bri2k1 (Reply 6):
It's a somewhat gradual transition, since as the plane accelerates down the runway, the wings gradually produce more lift. Even though actual liftoff may occur at a measurable instant in time, the transfer of weight occurs gradually.

Yes, but only during the period of time it takes the aircraft to rotate and not as the aircraft picks up speed. For the take-off run, you want as little drag as possible. This, for a wing, means the zero-lift angle of attack. A compromise has to be made, as you don't want the aircraft in too much of a nose down attitude on the ground, but it'll be close.

Then, on rotation, angle of attack is increased through pitching up. Lift increases with increased AoA until the lift exceeds the weight of the aircraft. Positive rate of climb, gear up...

Cheers,
Fred
I thought I was doing good trying to avoid those airport hotels... and look at me now.
 
MissedApproach
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RE: Did Wings Ever Fail On An Airliner?

Tue Jan 24, 2006 7:20 am

Quoting AmericanB763ER (Reply 10):
high vibrations in one of the outer engines resulting in a large part of the wing literally breaking off inflight.

Test video here, in Quicktime (which I detest):
http://www.airandspacemagazine.com/ASM/Web/Site/QT/PWFlutter.html
Not hard to imagine that causing a crash!
 Wow!
Can you hear me now?
 
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lightsaber
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RE: Did Wings Ever Fail On An Airliner?

Sat Feb 18, 2006 9:21 am

This is tech ops, so re-opening an few week old thread should be ok.  Smile

The only airliner that had a *design* inherent flaw in the wing designs that I know of is the old Lockheed L-188 Electra and that was due to flutter interaction with the props, so might not be what recent enough for what TheSonntag is looking for: In 1959 a Braniff example went down and 1960 a Northwest. Wikipedia is as good start source on this:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lockheed_L-188_Electra

Quoting GrandTheftAero (Reply 1):
Quoting TheSonntag (Thread starter):
Fortunately, wings are one of the most expensive, best built, best engineered parts existing on airliners...

The engine guys would have something to say about that.

 rotfl  We might disagree on the wing being the "best."  Wink

Quoting EconoBoy (Reply 11):
but whilst engine conditions are extreme, they are steady state

and this comment is why I am posting. The two harshest conditions on an engine are end of climb (hot core, poor cooling compounded by the throttle pull back to cruise) and an aborted landing: Very cold core, sudden application of throttle, the electronic limits on core spool up are automatically disabled (if you need power in flight, you *need* power). While much of an engine can be modeled steady state, two of the "corner cases" must be considered with their transient impacts.

Lightsaber
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aeroweanie
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RE: Did Wings Ever Fail On An Airliner?

Sat Feb 18, 2006 9:46 am

Quoting AmericanB763ER (Reply 10):
IIRC there were 2 crashes in the 60's involving Lockheed L-188 Electras (the one from AA the other from NW correct me if I'm wrong) due to high vibrations in one of the outer engines resulting in a large part of the wing literally breaking off inflight.

These were caused by whirl mode flutter of the propeller. The loads induced by the flutter exceeded the ultimate loads the wing was designed for and the wing failed. The engine mounts of the Electra were later modified to eliminate the possibility of whirl mode flutter going divergent.

Quoting Kevinl1011 (Reply 13):
Back in the late '40's, BOAC had a structural failure in one of their Comets where the wing yoke tore away from the fuselage due to fatigue from pressurization. They found the problem by repeatedly pressurizing a test aircraft in a huge water tank. If I remember correctly, the windows were too large and the fuselage skin would tear from the window frames down to the wing mount. Not exactly a wing failure but related.

The wing yoke wasn't what failed (January 10 1954 and April 8 1954). It was the fuselage as you say later. I think what you might be remembering is the registration of the first of the two Comets - G-ALYP (Yoke Peter).

BOAC did a lose a Comet to structural failure in a thunderstorm on May 2 1953.

Quoting FlyingColours (Reply 27):
The Iran Airforce lost a 747 in Spanish Airspace in the 1970safter it was struck by lightning and the wing failed.

It was on approach to Madrid on May 9 1976. The wing separated at the root probably due to a fuel tank exploding after the lightning strike. There was also a 707 lost due to a lightning strike exploding a fuel tank in the wing (December 8 1963).

There have been inflight failures of wings, but not many. One that comes to mind was a Martin 2-0-2, on August 29 1948.
 
LeanOfPeak
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RE: Did Wings Ever Fail On An Airliner?

Sun Feb 19, 2006 1:55 am

Quoting Avioniker (Reply 18):
I'm pretty certain there are no retired KC-135's in service anywhere and they haven't been converted to fire surpression anywhere either.

The only big jet I know of is the Evergreen 747 being certified for water dropping.

http://www.airliners.net/info/stats.main?id=84
 
amtrosie
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RE: Did Wings Ever Fail On An Airliner?

Sun Feb 19, 2006 3:13 am

Quoting AR1300 (Reply 5):
Quoting Dougloid (Reply 2):
How about the recent Chalks' fiasco?

IRCC, that was due to the engine ripping, thus debris and the sudden drag ripped it off.
I thing he meant wings ripping during regular flight regime, due to, let's call it fatigue.I think.

I hate to burst your bubble there AR1300, but the NTSB just released the photo's of the wing cross section. The engines had nothing to do with it. A tin-knocker misdrilled a hole and then patched over it, leaving the highly corrosive elements of the ocean to do their work. It is very sobering!! It leads one truely consider the entire body of work performed over one's carear!!

No Mel, I do not have the pictures handy, or the link. Maybe a more computer savy individual can help out. I saw them in AMT mag. last month.

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Military Aircraft Every type from fighters to helicopters from air forces around the globe

Classic Airliners Props and jets from the good old days

Flight Decks Views from inside the cockpit

Aircraft Cabins Passenger cabin shots showing seat arrangements as well as cargo aircraft interior

Cargo Aircraft Pictures of great freighter aircraft

Government Aircraft Aircraft flying government officials

Helicopters Our large helicopter section. Both military and civil versions

Blimps / Airships Everything from the Goodyear blimp to the Zeppelin

Night Photos Beautiful shots taken while the sun is below the horizon

Accidents Accident, incident and crash related photos

Air to Air Photos taken by airborne photographers of airborne aircraft

Special Paint Schemes Aircraft painted in beautiful and original liveries

Airport Overviews Airport overviews from the air or ground

Tails and Winglets Tail and Winglet closeups with beautiful airline logos