When an OEM such as, Airbus, Boeing, Bombardier or Embraer design a clean sheet aircraft, once they have signed the contract with the airlines to build the new aircraft to a certain specification, two critical area's need to be met, amongst others, weight guarantee's which ulitmately determine whether you can met your range guarantee's.
My questions are as follows. Please do not feel obliged to answer them all.
Before the days of outsourcing ,if say for instance Boeing designed a part, then awarded a U.S.company to manufacter it and it came in overweight, who would take the penaly hit? Boeing for failing to design it in a way that it could be manufactered to weigh less, or is the onus fully on the supplier who failed to keep the weight out?
How has outsourcing oversea's to non U.S. maufacturers with the onus of both designing and building the part, complicated these matters of penalties regarding weight or has it simplified things.
In the days before outsourcing how did OEM's orchestrate or design what weight goes where on an aircraft, do they use previous builds of previous generations of aircraft as a yard stick? Has the transition from aluminium to CFRP meant that the rule book was thrown out the door. Will future bulid CFRP's be easier with experience gained on say B787 or A350XWB or are there gotchas still to be had?
When all the parts come in for final assembly are they weighed individually to guage if the final assembled aircraft will be overweight, how does a Company like Airbus or Boeing have an idea ahead of the actual build that the aircraft will be overweight while still in the design phase?
When it comes to the final weigh in, I remember watching a program on the making of the B777. They used 3 scales with each landing gear resting on a respective scale and they would add up the 3 totals. During this weighing phase is the aircraft fueled or unfueled, hydraulic fluids added or not, cabin or galley furnishings added or not.
If RR engine weighs more or less than say P&W or GE is this final weight subtracted from the final weight of the aircraft that was guaranteed by Boeing or Airbus or do they guarantee on OEW or ZFW.
If the aircraft is overweight, how do they caculate the penalty? How is this passed on down the line so to speak from OEM to supplier? Is the penalty paid over years, can any real world examples be given e.g. A340-600. With upgrades or redesigns the weight is taken out progressively, how is this factored in regarding penalties?
I know there are alot of questions that cannot be answered in depth, but any responses will be fully appreciated.