I don’t think that is the best way to think of cavitation. The system including a propeller blade is for the most part adiabatic (no notable heat transfer).
The bubbles are caused because there are very low pressure areas around the propeller. Cavitation will only occur if the pressure declines to some point below the saturated vapour pressure of the liquid. Basically the pressure of the liquid in certain areas gets so low that it boils at the ambient temperature.
As a propeller's (as in the case of a ship or submarine) blades move through a fluid, low-pressure areas are formed as the fluid accelerates around and moves past the blades. The faster the blades move, the lower the pressure around it can become. As it reaches vapour pressure, the fluid vaporizes and forms small bubbles of gas. This is cavitation. When the bubbles collapse later, they typically cause very strong local shock waves in the fluid, which may be audible and may even damage the blades.
One science class trick that is done to show this is a glass of water is put inside a pressure vessel. If the air pressure is dropped, the water will eventually start boiling even though the temperature is constant.
If you have never designed an airplane part before, let the real designers do the work!