Several of the more expensive hotels around Schiphol seem to do bike rental, but it might be expensive and impractical or impossible if you don't stay there.
At the railway station in Hoofddorp, I think you'll have to be a member of the Public Transport Bike scheme. I don't know if you can arrange this on the spot.
There are several bike shops in Badhoevedorp or Hoofddorp. They may not do rental, but I guess it should be possible to buy a secondhand bike and sell it back to them again for a reasonable price, perhaps one of these:
Hope that helps,