If you are new to photography, this is an excellent time to get out and learn something. There are no "best" modes, a good photo can be made using any one of the modes you have available, it is up to you to know how to use which each one in the most effective manner. The modes on your camera are like tools in a tool box. You can't use a hammer to turn a screw. Sure you can pound the screw into a board, but you won't get the same effect as using a screw driver. It's the same with photography.
Pick some stationary planes if available and put the camera in full auto, and try the different metering settings. Take note of the shutter and aperature settings the camera is selecting, and how the photos look on your screen overall. Look closely at the histogram and try to interpret what it is telling you. (use your manual).
Then set the camera to either aperature or shutter priority and then manual, and experiment with changing the settings, all the while comparing the photo to the histogram. The histogram is the key. Make only ONE change at a time and try to see what effect that change had on the image. If you make more then one change, you may not be able to determine which change made what effect on your image.
While your out, disregard the comment on not shooting slower then your lens' focal length. Why? Because it is not true. Many people can (and do) shoot much slower then the focal length of their lens. But, YOU have to learn how slow YOU can go, and under what conditions. Try anything you want, but learn from it.
Take the bad weather day and put some money in your "experience bank" you will be drawing from that "bank" years down the road IF
you put something in it.
Most importantly, just have fun.