Some will use Manual, some will use Av with the aperture at f8. Depending on the light the ISO will be pushed up to get a suitable shutter speed. The shutter speed, ideally, should be faster than the inverse of the focal length of the lens. Note the 60D is a APS-C camera with a 1.6 crop factor so the focal length at the sensor is 1.6x what the lens focal length is. 200mm => 320mm, etc. and a shutter speed of 1/250s or 1/500s at this focal length
Pity you trashed the photos, you should have kept them to do a CSI on them to see where you went wrong.
What lens were you using? What was the weather like? What time of day was it?
To start off, really, you're going to want a sunny day with the sun behind you, not midday and, perhaps, the plane not moving so you don't have to worry about following a plane or getting confusing exposure meter readings from the sky. Overcast days tend to give flat contrast and drab photos.
Set the focus point to the centre and use spot metering so you're getting the exposure from the aircraft itself.
Also, read the manual and get a photography book to learn the basics about aperture, shutter speed, ISO, exposure compensation, etc.
wheat and dairy can screw up your brain