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ArchGuy1
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China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Fri May 15, 2020 6:00 am

China has banned the construction of skyscrapers over 1,640 feet tall, except under special circumstances with buildings over 820 feet tall severely limited. China says that this is being done to meet architectural principles and a crackdown is also taking place on copycat designs. China is already home to 6 of the 10 tallest buildings in the world and 5his new law will curtail economic growth in the country. They should allow skyscrapers of any height, as long as they are of good quality and meet safety requirements, including concerns about flight paths.
https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.dailym ... -feet.html
 
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CitizenJustin
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Fri May 15, 2020 6:08 am

Cities with height restrictions in place many decades ago have relatively flat and short skylines now compared to cities without. The definition of what’s tall changes as technology progresses. It’s crazy to think the supertalls in China could be dwarfed in the next 100 years or so because of the height restriction.
Last edited by CitizenJustin on Fri May 15, 2020 6:09 am, edited 1 time in total.
 
ArchGuy1
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Fri May 15, 2020 6:09 am

CitizenJustin wrote:
Cities with height restrictions in place many decades ago have relatively flat and short skylines compared cities without. The definition of what’s tall changes as technology progresses. It’s crazy to think the supertalls in China could be dwarfed in next 100 years or so because of the height restriction.

Which cities have more distinctive skylines?
 
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CitizenJustin
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Fri May 15, 2020 6:16 am

ArchGuy1 wrote:
CitizenJustin wrote:
Cities with height restrictions in place many decades ago have relatively flat and short skylines compared cities without. The definition of what’s tall changes as technology progresses. It’s crazy to think the supertalls in China could be dwarfed in next 100 years or so because of the height restriction.

Which cities have more distinctive skylines?



What I’m saying is that the skyscrapers in China are some of the highest and most impressive buildings in 2020. With a height restriction, many cities in the next 100 years will build taller and taller, which could dwarf the buildings we consider tall now.
 
ltbewr
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Fri May 15, 2020 12:58 pm

Washington, DC has a strict height restriction on buildings, government and private for over a century, limiting height of that of the Capital building or less. In part it was to make sure the government buildings stand out. Of course nearby suburbs have no such restrictions.

No doubt ego but also $$$ especially the costs of the land footprint are factors for super tall buildings. I don't like the big trend of many 'skinny' tall buildings in NYC, especially in mid-town Manhattan, mainly built for the top 1/10 of 1% of the residential market. To me they are ugly, create unwanted shadows in places like Central Park. Tall buildings are very inefficient as to energy use and difficult to evacuate if a fire or terror attack. I work in a tall building in NYC and a full evacuation drill done 3 years ago was a massive failure. A follow up about a year ago was better, but still far from desirable.

Covid-19 will lead to more people working from home, less need for big, tall 'downtown' office buildings, possibly some shift to smaller satellite offices in suburbs or smaller cities where workers need an office due to the nature of their work. Tax laws and the economy long-term may also lead to fewer and smaller office and residential buildings.
 
ArchGuy1
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Fri May 15, 2020 5:17 pm

ltbewr wrote:
Washington, DC has a strict height restriction on buildings, government and private for over a century, limiting height of that of the Capital building or less. In part it was to make sure the government buildings stand out. Of course nearby suburbs have no such restrictions.

No doubt ego but also $$$ especially the costs of the land footprint are factors for super tall buildings. I don't like the big trend of many 'skinny' tall buildings in NYC, especially in mid-town Manhattan, mainly built for the top 1/10 of 1% of the residential market. To me they are ugly, create unwanted shadows in places like Central Park. Tall buildings are very inefficient as to energy use and difficult to evacuate if a fire or terror attack. I work in a tall building in NYC and a full evacuation drill done 3 years ago was a massive failure. A follow up about a year ago was better, but still far from desirable.

Covid-19 will lead to more people working from home, less need for big, tall 'downtown' office buildings, possibly some shift to smaller satellite offices in suburbs or smaller cities where workers need an office due to the nature of their work. Tax laws and the economy long-term may also lead to fewer and smaller office and residential buildings.

What building do you work in and do you think it is a good idea that China is limiting the height of buildings?
 
johns624
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Fri May 15, 2020 5:59 pm

ArchGuy1 wrote:
China has banned the construction of skyscrapers over 1,640 feet tall, except under special circumstances with buildings over 820 feet tall severely limited...new law will curtail economic growth in the country.
Limiting building to under 1640 feet isn't going to have any effect on economic growth...that's what Covid-19 is for.
 
zakuivcustom
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Fri May 15, 2020 7:04 pm

It is BS that it will "curtail economic growth".

The building boom in mainland China is getting ridiculous anyway. Every single 2nd/3rd tier mainland Chinese cities start building some "landmark" building, only to have them maybe 30% occupied. There are also multiple skyscraper projects that are suspended as-is, and this was BEFORE the current CoVID-19 mess.

Not to mention, most of the buildings are unimaginative and ugly.
 
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Fri May 15, 2020 7:06 pm

zakuivcustom wrote:
It is BS that it will "curtail economic growth".

The building boom in mainland China is getting ridiculous anyway. Every single 2nd/3rd tier mainland Chinese cities start building some "landmark" building, only to have them maybe 30% occupied. There are also multiple skyscraper projects that are suspended as-is, and this was BEFORE the current CoVID-19 mess.

Not to mention, most of the buildings are unimaginative and ugly.

Is it a good idea that China is doing these rules on building height?
 
Kiwirob
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Fri May 15, 2020 7:25 pm

1640ft is 500m which is tall enough, I doubt this will be detrimental to the future growth of China’s economy.
 
zakuivcustom
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Fri May 15, 2020 7:39 pm

ArchGuy1 wrote:
zakuivcustom wrote:
It is BS that it will "curtail economic growth".

The building boom in mainland China is getting ridiculous anyway. Every single 2nd/3rd tier mainland Chinese cities start building some "landmark" building, only to have them maybe 30% occupied. There are also multiple skyscraper projects that are suspended as-is, and this was BEFORE the current CoVID-19 mess.

Not to mention, most of the buildings are unimaginative and ugly.

Is it a good idea that China is doing these rules on building height?


I don't know if it is a good thing, but you can bet that those fairly empty skyscrapers have a factor in the central govt decision.
 
zakuivcustom
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Fri May 15, 2020 9:37 pm

https://www.scmp.com/business/article/3 ... -scale-new

And in case anyone ask for where I got the "empty skyscraper" from, the above is just one source of many.

Mainland China quite frankly just borrow and build and build more, and while the govt don't want to say it directly, the speculative bubble is going to come down hard one day.
 
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Fri May 15, 2020 11:00 pm

Kiwirob wrote:
1640ft is 500m which is tall enough, I doubt this will be detrimental to the future growth of China’s economy.

Would a 1,640 foot tall skyscraper be allowed in any city in New Zealand, like Auckland.
 
johns624
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Sat May 16, 2020 2:19 am

ArchGuy1 wrote:
Kiwirob wrote:
1640ft is 500m which is tall enough, I doubt this will be detrimental to the future growth of China’s economy.

Would a 1,640 foot tall skyscraper be allowed in any city in New Zealand, like Auckland.

Most extremely tall buildings are built in crowded areas with extremely high real estate prices. The population of NZ is less than 5 million so there's plenty of land to expand. Other than the Sky Tower, the tallest building in Auckland is less than 600ft tall.
 
jetwet1
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Sat May 16, 2020 3:29 am

zakuivcustom wrote:
https://www.scmp.com/business/article/3041474/chinas-skyscraper-developers-have-pay-their-vanity-frenzy-scale-new

And in case anyone ask for where I got the "empty skyscraper" from, the above is just one source of many.

Mainland China quite frankly just borrow and build and build more, and while the govt don't want to say it directly, the speculative bubble is going to come down hard one day.


Bingo, we have a winner, follow the money folks, as noted above, there are a number of high profile buildings that are next to empty, this is the central governments way of limiting growth and capital expenditure.
 
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stl07
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Sat May 16, 2020 7:21 am

San Juan has a height restriction and it is proving to be a burden
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Kiwirob
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Sat May 16, 2020 7:22 am

ArchGuy1 wrote:
Kiwirob wrote:
1640ft is 500m which is tall enough, I doubt this will be detrimental to the future growth of China’s economy.

Would a 1,640 foot tall skyscraper be allowed in any city in New Zealand, like Auckland.


The tallest building in Auckland is 328m, there is absolutely no need for anyone to build 500m, I don’t think there are any rules saying they couldn’t but finding tenants would be the problem.
 
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Sat May 16, 2020 7:26 am

johns624 wrote:
ArchGuy1 wrote:
Kiwirob wrote:
1640ft is 500m which is tall enough, I doubt this will be detrimental to the future growth of China’s economy.

Would a 1,640 foot tall skyscraper be allowed in any city in New Zealand, like Auckland.

Most extremely tall buildings are built in crowded areas with extremely high real estate prices. The population of NZ is less than 5 million so there's plenty of land to expand. Other than the Sky Tower, the tallest building in Auckland is less than 600ft tall.


614ft
 
zakuivcustom
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Sat May 16, 2020 1:35 pm

stl07 wrote:
San Juan has a height restriction and it is proving to be a burden


What's the exact restriction? I couldn't quite find details on that.

Back to the original topic, for comparison in US, there is only 1 single building in US that's >500m (the new 1 WTC), and a grand total of 15 cities that have at least one building >=250m.

Out of the 15, NYC and Chicago dominate, then there is one (Jersey City) that is literally NYC also anyway. Philly is next with 4, follow by Houston and Atlanta with 3. Dallas, LA, and SF each have 2. The rest are a single building (Seattle, Cleveland, Miami, Pittsburgh, Charlotte, OKC).

The bottom line? You simply don't need uber tall buildings everywhere. Oh, and don't get me started on all those half empty luxury condos in NYC that are just as ugly as those cookie cutter Chinese skyscrapers.
 
johns624
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Sat May 16, 2020 3:02 pm

Kiwirob wrote:
johns624 wrote:
ArchGuy1 wrote:
Would a 1,640 foot tall skyscraper be allowed in any city in New Zealand, like Auckland.

Most extremely tall buildings are built in crowded areas with extremely high real estate prices. The population of NZ is less than 5 million so there's plenty of land to expand. Other than the Sky Tower, the tallest building in Auckland is less than 600ft tall.


614ft
Just curious about what that is? I just found the PWC at 591ft. Was something measured wrong?
 
johns624
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Sat May 16, 2020 3:03 pm

stl07 wrote:
San Juan has a height restriction and it is proving to be a burden
San Juan has much greater burdens than being able to build skyscrapers...
 
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Aesma
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Sat May 16, 2020 5:04 pm

In France we don't have such a restriction, cities usually do, or basically approve of buildings on a case by case basis, so builders aren't even considering building a skyscraper in the middle of Paris for example.

Where such buildings are welcome, "La Défense" business district, another rule is limiting their height : the need for firefighters close enough to the top, as well as redundant routes for evacuations, isolated cells to prevent fires from engulfing the whole building, etc.

These rules basically limit the height of towers to what there is currently there, or a bit more (350m).

A skyscraper is a vanity thing anyway, after COVID they might be much tougher sells than they were already.

I shouldn't say that as my company builds these things, but oh well. It's telling that the company HQ, where I work, is a group of 3 storey buildings on a large campus...
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zakuivcustom
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Sat May 16, 2020 5:50 pm

Aesma wrote:
In France we don't have such a restriction, cities usually do, or basically approve of buildings on a case by case basis, so builders aren't even considering building a skyscraper in the middle of Paris for example


Bc Paris learned their lesson with Tour Montparnasse. Now that's an eyesore.
 
ArchGuy1
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Sat May 16, 2020 6:53 pm

zakuivcustom wrote:
Aesma wrote:
In France we don't have such a restriction, cities usually do, or basically approve of buildings on a case by case basis, so builders aren't even considering building a skyscraper in the middle of Paris for example


Bc Paris learned their lesson with Tour Montparnasse. Now that's an eyesore.

The Eiffel Tower was also viewed as an eyesore when it was built in 1889, but has become a beloved symbol of Paris.
 
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stl07
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Sat May 16, 2020 7:04 pm

zakuivcustom wrote:
stl07 wrote:
San Juan has a height restriction and it is proving to be a burden


What's the exact restriction? I couldn't quite find details on that.

I'm unsure what the exact number is, but I know that it is causing spacial issues in the beach tourist area
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Kiwirob
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Sun May 17, 2020 5:46 am

johns624 wrote:
Kiwirob wrote:
johns624 wrote:
Most extremely tall buildings are built in crowded areas with extremely high real estate prices. The population of NZ is less than 5 million so there's plenty of land to expand. Other than the Sky Tower, the tallest building in Auckland is less than 600ft tall.


614ft
Just curious about what that is? I just found the PWC at 591ft. Was something measured wrong?


It’s a building called Seascape, it’s still under construction.
 
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Zkpilot
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Mon May 18, 2020 10:56 am

ArchGuy1 wrote:
Kiwirob wrote:
1640ft is 500m which is tall enough, I doubt this will be detrimental to the future growth of China’s economy.

Would a 1,640 foot tall skyscraper be allowed in any city in New Zealand, like Auckland.

In Auckland, sure if someone wanted to. Elsewhere no - earthquake risk, no demand for it and would dominate the skyline far too much.
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Kiwirob
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Mon May 18, 2020 11:46 am

Zkpilot wrote:
ArchGuy1 wrote:
Kiwirob wrote:
1640ft is 500m which is tall enough, I doubt this will be detrimental to the future growth of China’s economy.

Would a 1,640 foot tall skyscraper be allowed in any city in New Zealand, like Auckland.

In Auckland, sure if someone wanted to. Elsewhere no - earthquake risk, no demand for it and would dominate the skyline far too much.


I think they would have trouble in the CBD due to the volcanic viewshafts which are protected. This wouldn't be a problem in Manukau, Takapuna or Albany, but would anyone want to build a 500m plus building in any of those locations?

The volcanic viewshafts protect identified regionally significant views to the volcanic features. The volcanic viewshafts are identified as a layer on the planning maps. It is non-complying activity for buildings to penetrate the floor of the volcanic viewshafts except where the land is within a height sensitive area, as explained below.
 
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Mon May 18, 2020 12:15 pm

We have such restrictions in Norway too.
 
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Zkpilot
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Mon May 18, 2020 1:38 pm

Kiwirob wrote:
Zkpilot wrote:
ArchGuy1 wrote:
Would a 1,640 foot tall skyscraper be allowed in any city in New Zealand, like Auckland.

In Auckland, sure if someone wanted to. Elsewhere no - earthquake risk, no demand for it and would dominate the skyline far too much.


I think they would have trouble in the CBD due to the volcanic viewshafts which are protected. This wouldn't be a problem in Manukau, Takapuna or Albany, but would anyone want to build a 500m plus building in any of those locations?

The volcanic viewshafts protect identified regionally significant views to the volcanic features. The volcanic viewshafts are identified as a layer on the planning maps. It is non-complying activity for buildings to penetrate the floor of the volcanic viewshafts except where the land is within a height sensitive area, as explained below.

A good portion of the CBD and Takapuna is exempt/not restricted by those... otherwise the Sky Tower, PWC, Vero, ANZ towers wouldn’t have been built. Let alone the new planned cheese grater, or the sentinel in Takapuna. There are however restrictions around Mt Eden and the Auckland Domain though.
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Kiwirob
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Tue May 19, 2020 8:49 am

Zkpilot wrote:
Kiwirob wrote:
Zkpilot wrote:
In Auckland, sure if someone wanted to. Elsewhere no - earthquake risk, no demand for it and would dominate the skyline far too much.


I think they would have trouble in the CBD due to the volcanic viewshafts which are protected. This wouldn't be a problem in Manukau, Takapuna or Albany, but would anyone want to build a 500m plus building in any of those locations?

The volcanic viewshafts protect identified regionally significant views to the volcanic features. The volcanic viewshafts are identified as a layer on the planning maps. It is non-complying activity for buildings to penetrate the floor of the volcanic viewshafts except where the land is within a height sensitive area, as explained below.

A good portion of the CBD and Takapuna is exempt/not restricted by those... otherwise the Sky Tower, PWC, Vero, ANZ towers wouldn’t have been built. Let alone the new planned cheese grater, or the sentinel in Takapuna. There are however restrictions around Mt Eden and the Auckland Domain though.


Takapuna isn't covered by the viewshafts, the CBD is.
 
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Zkpilot
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Tue May 19, 2020 12:27 pm

Kiwirob wrote:
Zkpilot wrote:
Kiwirob wrote:

I think they would have trouble in the CBD due to the volcanic viewshafts which are protected. This wouldn't be a problem in Manukau, Takapuna or Albany, but would anyone want to build a 500m plus building in any of those locations?

The volcanic viewshafts protect identified regionally significant views to the volcanic features. The volcanic viewshafts are identified as a layer on the planning maps. It is non-complying activity for buildings to penetrate the floor of the volcanic viewshafts except where the land is within a height sensitive area, as explained below.

A good portion of the CBD and Takapuna is exempt/not restricted by those... otherwise the Sky Tower, PWC, Vero, ANZ towers wouldn’t have been built. Let alone the new planned cheese grater, or the sentinel in Takapuna. There are however restrictions around Mt Eden and the Auckland Domain though.


Takapuna isn't covered by the viewshafts, the CBD is.

Here is a diagram from Auckland Council showing the size and location of potential towers permitted in the CBD. As I said the CBD is most exempt from the view sharers as they are the east and west of the CBD core. Takapuna was mentioned because it does allow tall buildings and is part of Auckland.
Image
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afcjets
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Tue May 19, 2020 1:04 pm

johns624 wrote:
Most extremely tall buildings are built in crowded areas with extremely high real estate prices.


This is exactly San Francisco today. The irony is up until 15-20 years ago, SF didn't really have much of a skyline, outside the trademark Transamerica building. It's really sad too because SF almost felt like a European city and unlike any other major American city with it's lack of skyscrapers. Now, they're so tall and densely packed, it looks like a continuous wall of skyscrapers with no sky between them.
 
zakuivcustom
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Tue May 19, 2020 1:47 pm

afcjets wrote:
johns624 wrote:
Most extremely tall buildings are built in crowded areas with extremely high real estate prices.


This is exactly San Francisco today. The irony is up until 15-20 years ago, SF didn't really have much of a skyline, outside the trademark Transamerica building. It's really sad too because SF almost felt like a European city and unlike any other major American city with it's lack of skyscrapers. Now, they're so tall and densely packed, it looks like a continuous wall of skyscrapers with no sky between them.


For all the talks of skyscrapers everywhere in SF, only two of them (plus one under construction) even exceed the 250m limit that is being push in China for relative comparison.
 
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Tue May 19, 2020 3:03 pm

zakuivcustom wrote:
afcjets wrote:
johns624 wrote:
Most extremely tall buildings are built in crowded areas with extremely high real estate prices.


This is exactly San Francisco today. The irony is up until 15-20 years ago, SF didn't really have much of a skyline, outside the trademark Transamerica building. It's really sad too because SF almost felt like a European city and unlike any other major American city with it's lack of skyscrapers. Now, they're so tall and densely packed, it looks like a continuous wall of skyscrapers with no sky between them.


For all the talks of skyscrapers everywhere in SF, only two of them (plus one under construction) even exceed the 250m limit that is being push in China for relative comparison.


I would rather have restrictions on spacing than height.
 
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casinterest
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Tue May 19, 2020 3:07 pm

Have they really banned them? Severely Restricted is not quite the same as a total Ban.
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c933103
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Tue May 19, 2020 4:06 pm

casinterest wrote:
Have they really banned them? Severely Restricted is not quite the same as a total Ban.

They have babned it but said explicit approval can be granted in case by case basis after a number of evaluation and such.
Some users in the thread are trting to compare this restriction with height restrictions in western cities which I don't think it is a proper equivalent.
Similar restrictions in western cities are usually put in case.to limit disruption to city landscape and view.
Meanwhile the restriction put in place in China is to prevent smaller cities from building excessively extravagant structure hurting the financial situation of governments of those cities themselves.
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zakuivcustom
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Tue May 19, 2020 8:47 pm

c933103 wrote:
casinterest wrote:
Have they really banned them? Severely Restricted is not quite the same as a total Ban.

They have babned it but said explicit approval can be granted in case by case basis after a number of evaluation and such.
Some users in the thread are trting to compare this restriction with height restrictions in western cities which I don't think it is a proper equivalent.
Similar restrictions in western cities are usually put in case.to limit disruption to city landscape and view.
Meanwhile the restriction put in place in China is to prevent smaller cities from building excessively extravagant structure hurting the financial situation of governments of those cities themselves.


And the financial situation IS a key. The debt level of some of the local govt in China is just as astonishing as the US debt.

afcjets wrote:
zakuivcustom wrote:
afcjets wrote:

This is exactly San Francisco today. The irony is up until 15-20 years ago, SF didn't really have much of a skyline, outside the trademark Transamerica building. It's really sad too because SF almost felt like a European city and unlike any other major American city with it's lack of skyscrapers. Now, they're so tall and densely packed, it looks like a continuous wall of skyscrapers with no sky between them.


For all the talks of skyscrapers everywhere in SF, only two of them (plus one under construction) even exceed the 250m limit that is being push in China for relative comparison.


I would rather have restrictions on spacing than height.


But even in Europe, skyscraper tend to cluster as it is actually the most aesthetically pleasing. A tower in the middle of a bunch of shorter buildings just look weird anyway (Williams Tower in Houston is my greatest example in US).
 
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Aesma
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Wed May 20, 2020 1:04 am

I visited SF recently and most of it still feels like an European city, since indeed the skyscrapers are almost all bunched together. I didn't mind them either.

Now the price of one of those houses, ouch !

c933103 : governments building skyscrapers is totally wrong anyway, if they made sense private money would build them...
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Re: China Bans Construction of Skyscrapers Over Certain Height

Sat May 23, 2020 4:55 pm

I wondered if India after Covid 19 will stop the extreme dense way of building. India is still in the beginning of city building.
I never understood the logic of skyscraper unless there is some show off value with the address. Flying via Doha I shook my head. Desert and a few skyscrapers.
Flying via Cairo the plane passed over a newly built residential area. Housing for the millions of Egypt's growing population needs a more cost sensitive approach.

Munich has an excellent public transport system. That's because it has the highest population density of German cities. Nevertheless many roads in the city center are limited to four floors. The fire police ladder height decides the permission. There are roads in which buildings have seven floors. These roads may have a small green strip between car parking and walk path. That's also good, maybe even better.
Higher buildings are also available, but that requires a lot of space between buildings. This space is usually not very interesting. I believe higher buildings very close to subway stations are o.k.

I believe in Munich skyscrapers (which since a referendum in 2004 means below 100 m) can only come up on government owned land. Not sure, maybe it means land has to be sold to the city and the city sells it far more expensive to whoever builds the high rise.

In the tropics shade of buildings may be pleasant. I believe in cold climates people walking through the city need to enjoy the sun.

Imagine a city of 10 km x 10 km. That's 100 mio square meters. If 75% is open space/ roads and 25% are covered with six floor buildings one gets 150 million square meters built up for flats, offices, schools, hospitals and whatever else. In 20 km x 20 km it's 600 million square meters built up. That's a nice size for public transport. 600 million square meter built up is enough for how many million people?
I don't quite understand the need for skyscrapers.
Why can't the world be a little bit more autistic?

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