It is a shame they could not shoot down a missile in their airspace.
It was presumably an error. No attack, so no Article 5. If it happened time and again, that might be different (deliberate use of a non-combatant's airspace to attack Ukraine).
It was not an attack on a Romanian target, but it was a violation of Romania's and Modolva's airspaces, which are part of their sovereign territory. This territory extends 12 nm from their coasts.
Civil overflights are allowed within the IASTA or other treaties, but of course, a missile is not a civil overflight. Romania has every right to intercept such missiles. As far as I know, they would have the right to intercept crewed Russian combat aircraft, as well, but due to the greater seriousness of doing so, I presume would first issue several warnings before actually firing on a crewed Russian combat aircraft.
Whether Romania actually fires, even at an unmanned target, would presumably include consideration for the safety of those on the ground.
It doesn't seem to be stated where this happened, but assuming it wasn't a malfunction, based on the statement the missiles entered Moldova first, then Romania, I would expect they were launched from somewhere off the coast of western Odesa Oblast, heading towards Lviv. That might be at the extreme of their range. Lviv is much more easily in reach from Belarus, from which Russia has fired air launched cruise missiles, but I could see them trying a strike from the Black Sea based on the expectation air defenses would be lighter in that direction. Some articles do mention Lviv being attacked today.
With regard to MBT's being supplied to Ukraine, how many will be supplied and crew trained
- in time for the spring resumption of mobility
- before autumn conditions reduce mobility
I've seen some some articles raise the possibly of accelerating training on the Leopards to six weeks to focus on giving experienced tank crews enough training to operate the new vehicles, but nothing confirmed.
But six weeks isn't enough to learn to operate per NATO doctrine. Info I see posted by the US Armor School at Fort Benning indicates crewmember training starts with 22 week course. Gunners receive 5 weeks of common gunnery training, and then vehicle specific training (Abrams, Bradley, etc) that is another 8 weeks covering maintaining and effectively using the primary weapons to be certified as master gunners. I don't seem to see tank commander training, but my understanding is tank commanders are promoted from gunners, and have additional training to learn to lead the tank crew to carry out the objectives given by the platoon commander.
To enable maneuver and combined arms tactics, lieutenants receive a 19 week course for officers on how to effectively lead an armored platoon, on top of having already received general tactical planning training as officers. Captains receive a 21 week course on armor leadership at the company level.
And then training as a unit would continue after completing armor school and receiving an assignment, including periodic rotations through the National Training Center at Fort Irwin to do large scale exercises.
Ukraine is not going to get all of that. It's going to be abbreviated to some degree, and I'm sure discussions between western staff and that of the Ukrainian units to receive the tanks is currently underway to determine what the right balance is between fielding the tanks more quickly, or getting the crews more training.
In short, I'm dubious Ukraine will be operating western tanks on the battlefield before late spring, but hopefully well before fall.