Doesn't Australia require a first flight to another city?
Most Australian bilaterals (except for those with close partners like the UK and US) apply capacity and/or frequency restrictions to "primary" ports like SYD, MEL, and BNE, but are unlimited to 'secondary' destinations. As noted earlier on in the thread, the Australia-Turkey agreement permits seven weekly frequencies in the first category, so TK can use them as they please, but the more primary ports they use them for, the fewer frequencies they can offer to each.
So, for example, if they go to daily on SYD, any potential expansion to MEL or BNE etc etc would need to be via an unrestricted secondary port unless the bilateral is renegotiated.
Comparable cases are CX going via CNS and QR via CBR.
Kind of a stupid question (I'm just not familiar with the law), who exactly granted the 5th freedom right? In, let say, DL's case, which (was) ATL-NRT-PVG (IIRC...), is China the one that grant the 5th freedom, or is it Japan?
Fifth-freedoms are granted by the intermediate nation but involve the two end-point nations as well. So in the DL example, it is the US-Japan bilateral that grants fifth-freedom rights to US airlines for traffic from Japan to destinations other than the US, but those other destinations must also accept that traffic.
In another example, QF (alongside all other eligible Australian airlines) hold now-dormant fifth-freedom rights from Hong Kong. These are negotiated between HK and Australia, but HK imposes frequency and capacity restrictions on Australian carriers that exploit them. When QF last used them it was to fly MEL-HKG-LHR and return, so on top of the HK agreement the UK government also had to allow it, which is contained in this line from the 2008 Australia-UK bilateral:
AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF AUSTRALIA AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND CONCERNING AIR SERVICES, 10 July 2008, Section 3.2 wrote:
Routes to be operated by the designated airline or airlines of Australia:
Points in Australia – Intermediate Points – Points in the United Kingdom – Points Beyond
This in turn also grants eligible Australian airlines fifth-freedoms from the UK onwards, which would have to be further accepted by those nations.