In my mind, if there is not a developed infrastructure for construction, I doubt there are high-quality software and electrical engineers in abundance. More likely, there is an abundance of people willing to work for next to nothing and have very basic skills.
Please skip this post if you are not interested in developing countries.
I want to apologize. From your earlier post you seemed prejudiced to me, therefore my sarcastic reply. However your reply is very mature. You seem to be a nice guy. I made a mistake in being so sarcastic.
I live in India and even I’m confused as to the qualification of the workforce. Normally schooling is a state, not central, responsibility. My son goes to a private school. It’s where the wealthy people send their children. The curriculum is given by the central government. I found very pathetic mistakes in my son’s fourth standard maths book. That seems to contradict with the fact that India has successfully completed a Mars mission. And why doesn’t India just copy Western school books for English medium schools?
To understand this one has to read the fabulous book "Why nations fail" by Daron Acemoglu and James Robinson. One of their many examples is Venice. Venice had a type of contract where a captain and the person who financed a voyage shared the profit. Top tax payers would form a type of parliament. Tax filings of the time still exist. They show that with each generation the names of the top taxpayers changed.
The parliament decided that future parliaments will consist only of present members or their descendants. It didn’t take long till captains were not allowed to have profit sharing agreements. They became employees.
Venice had changed from an open to a closed society. Within 100 years population decreased to a fraction and Venice disappeared from the map as a power.
Open societies create an enormous amount of wealth. But in open societies one isn’t on top for long. Today people speak of Elon Musk, not of Bill Gates. Not so in India. In “Satyagraha in South Africa” Gandhi wrote that a check from Tata just arrived in Time. Gandhi left South Africa more than 100 years ago, but one doesn’t even need to be Indian to know the name Tata.
Tata took over Jaguar. Why are they less successful in the West than in India?
In India just like in the West politicians get a lot of money from the rich. I believe it is in the interest of the super rich in India that engineers are smart enough to copy a car or a fridge, but not smart enough so that some Elon Musks may chase them from their top positions. How to achieve that?
One can’t just open a school like a capitalist enterprise. There has to be a board with I believe seven members. In India it’s one’s duty to help relatives. So if a board member has a nice who needs a job as teacher, what will happen? Schools need recognition from the government every few years. So if a minister’s nice needs a job as teacher, can the school say no?
In big towns there may be one school where politicians send their children. These schools can be cheap and best. That doesn’t mean good for industrial country standard. Obviously not everybody can get admission.
Teacher’s training is not good enough. Add pathetic school books. In higher education there is a lot of money. Where there is so much money, politicians are usually not far.
Milton Friedman proposed to give educational vouchers to parents, schools should be capitalistic enterprises. While I strongly disagree for developed nations I strongly agree for developing countries.
However an educational system which makes people with an IQ of 110 smart enough to copy a fridge allows people with higher IQ to make themselves smart.
There are 1.300.000.000 Indians. If one assumes the top 3% become very smart against the odds, how many very smart people do you get? A lot of the top skill leaves India. So Boeing in India may have to satisfy themselves with India’s intelligence below the top 1%. These are assumptions. I don’t know real numbers.
Suppose politicians allow foreign IT companies to run their business provided the foreign companies rent office space from them. How does this affect educational reforms?
One can find very smart 35 years old with only a few years education. In 1991 India had a balance of payment crisis. The IMF forced India to open the economy and allow foreign direct investment. Since then more and more jobs in the private sector became available. Earlier good jobs were mostly in government owned enterprises. One needed an influential uncle and not merit to get such jobs. Why to go to school? This is the first generation where the majority of children remain in school till eight, if not tenth standard. People are getting smarter. Schooling as well as governance will improve.
My barber’s son just finished his studies as software engineer. He says companies want experienced labour. Which probably means a degree is no proof of qualification. If nobody takes him he intends to open his own barber shop. I believe to remember that India has more than a million unemployed engineers. Most of them wouldn’t qualify as engineers in an industrial country. But how many % of them will be better than industrial country average?
If politics interferes, there can be no private initiative/ jobs. In most areas of India one can’t make business. Excess labour leads to cheap salaries which leads to less technology employed. It doesn’t necessarily mean that the technology is not available. About scale in infrastructure for construction:https://indianexpress.com/article/india ... g-5526168/
I think you got a rough idea now why there are contradicting impressions. It took me years to look through them. There is no way for a Westerner not to get them wrong.