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FW200
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Re: History behind idiosyncratic IATA airline shortcodes

Thu Oct 31, 2019 1:12 pm

ua900 wrote:
Condor using DE likely is a reference to DEutschland aka Germany


Condor's IATA-Code used to be DF (from the company's original name Deutsche Flugdienst GmbH - German Flight Services Ltd.), but changed somewhere in the 90ies to DE, DF being used for Condor Berlin until its merger with Condor in 2013.

skytony wrote:
When I worked for Leisure Air in the early 1990s. I remembered our code to be L8 which was fitting because of our massive delays with the DC-10 fleet.


Well, then I suggest EW takes over L8 for their long-range business, which is pretty much suffering from the same problems with their second-hand A330s. 8-) :mrgreen:
 
Andy33
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Re: History behind idiosyncratic IATA airline shortcodes

Thu Oct 31, 2019 1:40 pm

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andrefranca
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Re: History behind idiosyncratic IATA airline shortcodes

Thu Oct 31, 2019 2:20 pm

SASViking wrote:
Sterling Airways had NB which stood for Nordisk Bustrafik (Nordic bustraffic/transport).
When the travel agency Tjæreborg started in 1950, they operated bus tours from Denmark to Spain under the name "Nordisk Bustrafik", when Sterling Airways was created in 1962 by the same travel agency, they took NB as a tribute to their "heritage"


I had my first LCC flight with them, THF-CPH in 2007, I was 19! a young scared brazilian who could not believe a flight could cost only 30 euros!!!!
 
SeoulIncheon
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Re: History behind idiosyncratic IATA airline shortcodes

Fri Nov 01, 2019 2:36 pm

raylee67 wrote:
VTCIE wrote:
Of course we have the famous AK (AirAsia), CX, CZ, EK, EY, MH, PR, QF, SQ, SV, TG, etc. where the first letter of the code matches the first letter of the airline, but the second letter is very random. Then there is the reverse case; the second letter makes sense but not the first:


Also KE, not sure why Korean Air did not choose KA, as KA was obviously available when Korean was founded, although the name of the airline was Korean National Airline, not Korean Air, at that time.

The current TG is a result of merger between Thai Airways International (TG) and Thai Airways (TH) back in the 1980s. TG was established to fly international and TH was the domestic airline.

When TG was established, it was probably used for the International one because TH was already used for the domestic airline, so they picked the alphabet before H. When the two merged, TG was retained, probably because it has more recognition globally.


Actually Korean Air is not a successor to Korean National Airline...the latter went bankrupt in 1961, ceased operations, then Korean gov't established Korean Air (as only airline in Korea then) which was privatised in 1969. (And Korean Air celebrates 50th anniversary this year) So when Korean Air chose its IATA code it would have been Korean Air Lines. Probably the fact that Cathay Dragon(KA) joined IATA (1987) before Korean Air mattered...
 
raylee67
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Re: History behind idiosyncratic IATA airline shortcodes

Sat Nov 02, 2019 9:35 am

SeoulIncheon wrote:
So when Korean Air chose its IATA code it would have been Korean Air Lines. Probably the fact that Cathay Dragon(KA) joined IATA (1987) before Korean Air mattered...

Shouldn't matter. Korean Air has been using KE as the flight code for a long time. I don't think an airline needs to be an IATA member to have that code? For example, Aeroflot was always putting SU in front of their flights, but it did not join IATA until after USSR was gone.
319/20/21 332/33 342/43/45 359/51 388 707 717 732/36/3G/38/39 74R/42/43/44/4E/48 757 762/63 772/7L/73/7W 788/89 D10 M80 135/40/45 175/90 DH1/4 CRJ/R7 L10
AY LH OU SR BA FI
AA DL UA NW AC CP WS FL NK PD
CI NH SQ KA CX JL BR OZ TG KE CA CZ NZ JQ RS
 
eielef
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Re: History behind idiosyncratic IATA airline shortcodes

Sat Nov 02, 2019 10:30 am

Argentinean codes are interesting:
AR for Aerolíneas Argentinas (I believe it comes from ARGENTINA which is the call sign from the airline)
AU from Austral Líneas Aéreas
4M for LATAM Argentina (sure, nothing else was left. BUT the airline legally was founded as Aerodosmil which is still worse).
FO for Flybondi (people sometimes use F0 (F-Zero). Not sure why.
DN for Norwegian Argentina (why D is a mistery)
WJ for Jetsmart Argentina (why W also a mistery).
FQ for Flyest (very small airline)
5U for LADE (Líneas Aéreas del Estado). Military airline

Past airlines should include:
OY for Andes Líneas Aéreas (ceased operations nov/19), airline sold tickets as ANxxx
A0 (A Zero) UGLIEST code, for Avianca Argentina (ceased operations jun/19).
8R for Sol Líneas Aéreas
MJ for LAPA Líneas Aéreas
A4 for Southern Winds
D7 for Dinar Líneas Aéreas

Also, for the flight numbering there is a special rule:
OY and 5U starts with 0, but flights are sold without that digit: e.g. OY842 AEP-JUJ, 5U451 USH-RGL-CRD. If more than 0500, OY. If less, 5U
AR starts with 1 e.g. AR1300 EZE-JFK
AU with 2 e.g. AU2800 ROS-SLA
WJ starts with 3, e.g. WJ3500 EPA-TUC. In the past, LAPA
4M used to start with 4, also did Southern Winds (Southern Winds). Now, unused
FO starts with 5, e.g. FO5050 EPA-MDZ. In the past, SOL Líneas Aéreas
DN starts with 6, e.g. DN6000 AEP-BRC. In the past, Dinar
A0 (past) and 4M starts with 7 . E.g. 4M7900 EZE-LIM. If less than 7500, then Avianca Argentina) (e.g. A07105 RCQ-ROS-AEP)
FQ starts with 8, e.g. FQ8651 NCJ-SFN-AEP
Flights starting with 9 are for ferry, e.g. 4M9983 ferry SCL-EZE, or A09186 MDQ-AEP. But this is not very common. AR and AU use the 0 for ferries, e.g. AR1040 or AU2072.
 
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FlyCaledonian
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Re: History behind idiosyncratic IATA airline shortcodes

Sat Nov 02, 2019 3:14 pm

MT, used by the late Thomas Cook Airlines, came from My Travel (The former Airtours International).

BY, used by TUI Airways, comes from Britannia Airways. I always assume the Y as the second letter was because of what was available plus for AirwaYs. I always loved the fact that this airline, founded as Euravia in 1961 rebranded as Britannia in 1964 to coincide with re-equipping with secondhand Bristol Britannia aircraft.

BA, for British Airways, is interesting because it was originally allocated to BOAC and I guess BO could equally have been requested. The fact that BOAC took BA meant that when British Airways was formed they had the perfect IATA code!

KT, for British Airtours (originally formed as BEA Airtours and rebranded as Caledonian Airways when BA took over BCal) has always been a complete mystery to me. As an interesting aside the British Airtours ICAO code was BKT, but this was changed to CKT when rebranded as Caledonian Airways.

EI, for Aer Lingus hasn't been mentioned yet. Simply takes the first two letters of Ireland's name in Gaelic - EIre.
Let's Go British Caledonian!
 
GZM1
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Re: History behind idiosyncratic IATA airline shortcodes

Sat Nov 02, 2019 5:57 pm

FlyCaledonian wrote:

KT, for British Airtours (originally formed as BEA Airtours and rebranded as Caledonian Airways when BA took over BCal) has always been a complete mystery to me. As an interesting aside the British Airtours ICAO code was BKT, but this was changed to CKT when rebranded as Caledonian Airways.

After a little google research I have found that KT is the code for:
1. Knight Bachelor
2. Knight of the Thistle
3. Knight Templar
4. Kensington Temple.
5. Postal code for Kingston upon Thames, covering south west London and north Surrey.
The code was also used by Birgenair, a defunct Turkish carrier.
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CarlosSi
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Re: History behind idiosyncratic IATA airline shortcodes

Sat Nov 02, 2019 6:31 pm

How about we start a company called “Golden Airways” and have the code be “AU”?
 
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PPVLC
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Re: History behind idiosyncratic IATA airline shortcodes

Sat Nov 02, 2019 7:10 pm

PB26 wrote:
PPVLC wrote:
[url][/url]
PB26 wrote:
VARIG's RG came from Rio Grande do Sul, the company birthstate


Yes, Viacao Aerea Riograndense gave us RG -from the RS state. Cruzeiro was SC because of its original name Servicos Aereos Cruzeiro do Sul.


Cruzeiro's SC may came from above, Southern Cross (the english translation for Cruzeiro do Sul) or Syndicato Condor, the SC's original name when the company was set up.


Southen Cross in Portuguese is...Cruzeiro do Sul, an english name wouldn't make any sense. Yes, Syndicato Condor turned into Cruzeiro do Sul during WW2 as German companies and names were quickly changed to avoid image problems, they wouldn't keep any reference to its past and any traces of Syndicato Condor vanished. SC comes from Servicos Aereos Cruzeiro do Sul.
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VHTAE
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Re: History behind idiosyncratic IATA airline shortcodes

Sun Nov 03, 2019 3:17 am

JU - JAT Yugoslav Airlines (Jugoslovenski Aerotransport) now Air Serbia.

TN - TAA Trans Australia Airlines/Australian Airlines now used by Air Tahiti Nui.
 
eielef
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Re: History behind idiosyncratic IATA airline shortcodes

Sun Nov 03, 2019 7:39 am

CarlosSi wrote:
How about we start a company called “Golden Airways” and have the code be “AU”?

That would be funny. Austral (that depends of Aerolineas Argentinas) has the code AU. Aerolíneas has the code AR but the call sign ARGENTINA. Considering that Argentina, the name comes from Latin: Argentum, that means Silver (as the name of the country comes from the Silver River), Aerolíneas could well be AG, following the old Mendeleev table...
 
findingnema
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Re: History behind idiosyncratic IATA airline shortcodes

Sun Nov 03, 2019 10:37 am

FlyCaledonian wrote:
MT, used by the late Thomas Cook Airlines, came from My Travel (The former Airtours International).


Not quite. MyTravel used VZ. MT was from the legacy Thomas Cook side, originating with Flying Colours Airlines. I’m not sure why they used MT though.
My postings on this site are my own and don’t necessarily represent my employer’s positions, strategies or opinions
 
openskies88
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Re: History behind idiosyncratic IATA airline shortcodes

Sun Nov 03, 2019 11:14 am

moa999 wrote:
Virgin Blue (Australia) used DJ from its inception - reportedly Disc Jockey as a homage to Branson's music roots.

When it rebranded to Virgin Australia it took the VA code.


Always found it odd that Virgin Atlantic opted for VS over VA, given VA was available long before Virgin Blue rebranded to Virgin Australia.
 
eielef
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Re: History behind idiosyncratic IATA airline shortcodes

Sun Nov 03, 2019 12:25 pm

Why Ryanair and Easy Jet have so unrelated codes, FR and U2?
 
Dominion301
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Re: History behind idiosyncratic IATA airline shortcodes

Sun Nov 03, 2019 1:35 pm

Anyone know (longhauler?] if AC were still AC back in their pre-1965 TCA days?
 
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eta unknown
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Re: History behind idiosyncratic IATA airline shortcodes

Sun Nov 03, 2019 4:47 pm

openskies88 wrote:
moa999 wrote:
Virgin Blue (Australia) used DJ from its inception - reportedly Disc Jockey as a homage to Branson's music roots.

When it rebranded to Virgin Australia it took the VA code.


Always found it odd that Virgin Atlantic opted for VS over VA, given VA was available long before Virgin Blue rebranded to Virgin Australia.

VA was in use until 1997 with Viasa. Virgin Atlantic was up and running for years by then, so no point in changing once VA became available.
 
gunnerman
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Re: History behind idiosyncratic IATA airline shortcodes

Sun Nov 03, 2019 4:57 pm

FlyCaledonian wrote:
BA, for British Airways, is interesting because it was originally allocated to BOAC and I guess BO could equally have been requested. The fact that BOAC took BA meant that when British Airways was formed they had the perfect IATA code!

Bear in mind that the British Airways name had existed since 1935 when Allied British Airways was formed in September 1935 from the merger of United Airways (itself a merger of Spartan Airlines and Jersey Airways) and Hillman’s Airways, and the name was changed to British Airways Ltd in October 1935. By the following year the company had taken over British Continental Airways and Crilly Airways, thus completing the most important set of mergers in British aviation history.

In the meantime Imperial Airways had not been doing well and the government passed the BOAC Act 1939 to form BOAC from a merger of Imperial Airways and British Airways Ltd in April 1940. It could well have been that there was a choice of BO or BA as the 2-character code, but perhaps the possibility of the airline being referred to as body odour wasn't thought to be appealing.
 
edealinfo
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Re: History behind idiosyncratic IATA airline shortcodes

Sun Nov 03, 2019 5:40 pm

VTCIE wrote:
One code that has never ceased to baffle me belongs to the biggest airline failure of the year. How on Earth did Jet Airways get 9W? If codes are visualised as a grid/matrix, 9W comes at the very end of the matrix of codes of the 1A type (digit followed by letter), and I think that codes near the beginning of the matrix (beginning with A) are much more desirable than those at the end.

SASViking wrote:
SRQKEF wrote:
SmartLynx, previously LatCharter, is 6Y = sexy.

Same goes for Alsie Express which have 6I :lol:

You are missing the big one. IndiGo chose the 6E code precisely because it sounds like ‘sexy’. When AirAsia India launched, there was an article in the Times of India that had a paragraph on the IATA codes of some Indian airlines.

Malaysian budget carrier AirAsia has scored a high five when it comes to getting an airline code. The JV, AirAsia India Pvt. Ltd. (AAIPL), has got ‘I5’ as its airline code and becomes the only Indian carrier to have a smart code apart from IndiGo which has ‘6E’—to rhyme with ‘sexy’—as its code.
GoAir’s G8 is closer to great, if stretched a bit. All other Indian airlines have either abbreviations of their names or random codes. Air India has AI code. Jet Airways, JetKonnect and SpiceJet have 9W, S2 and SG as their rather unimaginative codes.
AAIPL CEO Mittu Chandilya had told TOI earlier this month that he wanted a number and an alphabet in the airline’s code. Clearly, he came up with a smart one with I5.

Of course, from India we also have Vistara, which is the first non-British airline to have the ‘UK’ code.

Among non-Indian airlines, some interesting codes that have no explanation that I know of are as follows (plenty of Chinese airlines like GS, HO, JD, MF and PN):
  • AT: Royal Air Maroc
  • BR: EVA Air (no relation whatsoever to British Caledonian)
  • DD: Nok Air
  • DY: Norwegian Air Shuttle (every code in the Norwegian group begins with D: DY, D8, DI, DN)
  • FD: Thai AirAsia
  • FR: Ryanair
  • FV: Rossiya (its ICAO code, SDM, is equally random)
  • GK: Jetstar Japan (and formerly Laker Airways)
  • GS: Tianjin Airlines
  • HO: Juneyao Airlines
  • HV: Transavia
  • JD: Capital Airlines (and formerly Japan Air System)
  • JT: Lion Air
  • KA: Cathay Dragon (perhaps inspired by Kai Tak?)
  • LY: El Al Israel Airlines
  • MF: Xiamen Air
  • MI: SilkAir
  • MT: Thomas Cook Airlines (R.I.P.)
  • NX: Air Macau
  • OU: Croatia Airlines (they could have chosen HR, following Austrian’s lead in choosing OS)
  • OZ: Asiana Airlines (something Qantas might have utilised)
  • PG: Bangkok Airways
  • PN: West Air
  • RB: Syrian Air
  • UB: Myanmar National Airlines
  • UL: SriLankan Airlines
  • UX: Air Europa (a code better associated with interface design)
  • WB: RwandAir
  • WY: Oman Air (self-explanatory: WHY?!)

Of course we have the famous AK (AirAsia), CX, CZ, EK, EY, MH, PR, QF, SQ, SV, TG, etc. where the first letter of the code matches the first letter of the airline, but the second letter is very random. Then there is the reverse case; the second letter makes sense but not the first:
    .
  • DT: TAAG Angola Airlines
  • TM: LAM Mozambique Airlines
  • KM: Air Malta
  • YM: Montenegro Airlines
  • OM: MIAT Mongolian Airlines
Perhaps this has something to do with the fact that the first two are both Portuguese-speaking countries in Africa.

SASViking wrote:
Sterling Airways had NB which stood for Nordisk Bustrafik (Nordic bustraffic/transport).
When the travel agency Tjæreborg started in 1950, they operated bus tours from Denmark to Spain under the name "Nordisk Bustrafik", when Sterling Airways was created in 1962 by the same travel agency, they took NB as a tribute to their "heritage"

Today, Tjæreborg (spelled as Tjäreborg) is present only in Finland, which is a decidedly non-Scandinavian country. A strange case of a Scandinavian name being used in a non-Scandinavian country. Fortunately Tjäreborg (along with Spies in Denmark, and Ving in Norway and Sweden, as well as Thomas Cook Airlines Scandinavia) were unaffected by the collapse of the Thomas Cook Group.

That said, DK is an extremely appropriate code for Thomas Cook Airlines Scandinavia, as it is based in Denmark. Similarly DE for Condor (Germany), ID for Batik Air (Indonesia) and ZH for Shenzhen Airlines (not only because of ShenZHen, but also because the Chinese name for China, zhongguo, begins with ZH). Similarly for all those British airlines that had the UK code before Vistara came along.

FSDan wrote:
I assume all the airlines with numbered codes were just picking up available pairs of characters... B6, 3M, G4, Y4, 3U, etc.

Good examples of letter–number combinations that make absolutely no sense at all:
  • Latin America: Y4 (Volaris), 4O (Interjet) and H2 (Sky Airline). At the other end of the spectrum is JA (JetSmart). Also BW (Caribbean Airlines), which inherits its code from BWIA West Indies Airways.
  • Europe: U2 (easyJet), X3 (TUI fly Deutschland), 0B (Blue Air; the only code I know of that begins with a zero), 9U (Air Moldova; the same strange logic as neighbour Jet Airways).
  • Middle East and Africa: G9 (Air Arabia), 6H (Israir Airlines), 8Q (Onur Air), 8U (Afriqiyah Airways).
  • Eastern Asia: D7 (AirAsia X, especially given that Thai and Indonesian AirAsia X have XJ and XT, respectively); as well as 5J (Cebu Pacific Air) and Z2 (Philippines AirAsia, though this comes from Zest Airways).


UK for Vistara was deliberate. "UK" as in united Kingdom is "pforeign" which is considered superior in Indian culture . Indians are always willing to pay a premium for pforeign-associated goods and services as the perception is that it is superior. Vistara, as India's premium full service carrier, and the only one offering premium-economy, from a marketing perspective, wanted a code to resonate with class. India, as you are fully aware is a system of class and castes.
 
openskies88
Posts: 39
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Re: History behind idiosyncratic IATA airline shortcodes

Sun Nov 03, 2019 8:12 pm

eta unknown wrote:
openskies88 wrote:
moa999 wrote:
Virgin Blue (Australia) used DJ from its inception - reportedly Disc Jockey as a homage to Branson's music roots.

When it rebranded to Virgin Australia it took the VA code.


Always found it odd that Virgin Atlantic opted for VS over VA, given VA was available long before Virgin Blue rebranded to Virgin Australia.

VA was in use until 1997 with Viasa. Virgin Atlantic was up and running for years by then, so no point in changing once VA became available.


Had no idea. Thanks!
 
VTCIE
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Re: History behind idiosyncratic IATA airline shortcodes

Tue Nov 05, 2019 3:41 am

eielef wrote:
CarlosSi wrote:
How about we start a company called “Golden Airways” and have the code be “AU”?

That would be funny. Austral (that depends of Aerolineas Argentinas) has the code AU. Aerolíneas has the code AR but the call sign ARGENTINA. Considering that Argentina, the name comes from Latin: Argentum, that means Silver (as the name of the country comes from the Silver River), Aerolíneas could well be AG, following the old Mendeleev table...

No flight ever uses the AU code. All Austral flights use the AR code, making them indistinguishable from Aerolíneas flights. Meanwhile AG is used by Aruba Airlines. On the other hand, Silver Airways (best known for flying from Florida to the Caribbean, I think) has 3M—an American industrial behemoth—as its code.

Fittingly for an airline named after an element, the now-defunct Cobalt Air of Cyprus had CO, the old code of Continental Airlines.

eielef wrote:
Argentinean codes are interesting:
AR for Aerolíneas Argentinas (I believe it comes from ARGENTINA which is the call sign from the airline)
AU from Austral Líneas Aéreas
4M for LATAM Argentina (sure, nothing else was left. BUT the airline legally was founded as Aerodosmil which is still worse).
FO for Flybondi (people sometimes use F0 (F-Zero). Not sure why.
DN for Norwegian Argentina (why D is a mistery)
WJ for Jetsmart Argentina (why W also a mistery).
FQ for Flyest (very small airline)
5U for LADE (Líneas Aéreas del Estado). Military airline

Past airlines should include:
OY for Andes Líneas Aéreas (ceased operations nov/19), airline sold tickets as ANxxx
A0 (A Zero) UGLIEST code, for Avianca Argentina (ceased operations jun/19).
8R for Sol Líneas Aéreas
MJ for LAPA Líneas Aéreas
A4 for Southern Winds
D7 for Dinar Líneas Aéreas

Also, for the flight numbering there is a special rule:
OY and 5U starts with 0, but flights are sold without that digit: e.g. OY842 AEP-JUJ, 5U451 USH-RGL-CRD. If more than 0500, OY. If less, 5U
AR starts with 1 e.g. AR1300 EZE-JFK
AU with 2 e.g. AU2800 ROS-SLA
WJ starts with 3, e.g. WJ3500 EPA-TUC. In the past, LAPA
4M used to start with 4, also did Southern Winds (Southern Winds). Now, unused
FO starts with 5, e.g. FO5050 EPA-MDZ. In the past, SOL Líneas Aéreas
DN starts with 6, e.g. DN6000 AEP-BRC. In the past, Dinar
A0 (past) and 4M starts with 7 . E.g. 4M7900 EZE-LIM. If less than 7500, then Avianca Argentina) (e.g. A07105 RCQ-ROS-AEP)
FQ starts with 8, e.g. FQ8651 NCJ-SFN-AEP
Flights starting with 9 are for ferry, e.g. 4M9983 ferry SCL-EZE, or A09186 MDQ-AEP. But this is not very common. AR and AU use the 0 for ferries, e.g. AR1040 or AU2072.

I have never seen the AU code used anywhere. All Austral flights use the AR code. Meanwhile LATAM Argentina currently has only one flight using the 4M code: 4M7820/7821 from EZE to MIA and back. All other flights use the LA code. The ICAO code, DSM, is explained by Aerodosmil, the former name of the airline, as you have said.

Meanwhile LATAM Colombia (formerly known as AIRES) used the 4C code in the past.
 
eielef
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Re: History behind idiosyncratic IATA airline shortcodes

Wed Nov 06, 2019 4:45 pm

VTCIE wrote:
No flight ever uses the AU code. All Austral flights use the AR code, making them indistinguishable from Aerolíneas flights. Meanwhile AG is used by Aruba Airlines. On the other hand, Silver Airways (best known for flying from Florida to the Caribbean, I think) has 3M—an American industrial behemoth—as its code.

Fittingly for an airline named after an element, the now-defunct Cobalt Air of Cyprus had CO, the old code of Continental Airlines.


I have never seen the AU code used anywhere. All Austral flights use the AR code. Meanwhile LATAM Argentina currently has only one flight using the 4M code: 4M7820/7821 from EZE to MIA and back. All other flights use the LA code. The ICAO code, DSM, is explained by Aerodosmil, the former name of the airline, as you have said.

Meanwhile LATAM Colombia (formerly known as AIRES) used the 4C code in the past.


Some many years ago there were AU flights. A boarding pass from, say 2006, said flight AU2472, but the luggage tag said AR2472. And sure, now is not used any more. Many people suggests it would be easier and cheaper to merge definitely both airlines into one, because they are the same. Some years ago, you could enter to www.austral.com.ar and it would redirect you to aerolineas.com, i'm not sure now. I mean, you can't buy a ticket in Austral because they don't sell tickets, only AR does. BUT they have different labour unions, and they have different salaries, etc. They actually were very angry (pilots and crew) when they left the MD80s and started flying the E190s, because flying aircraft with more than 100 passengers pays you more than with less than 99.
But the airline is there, without any significative changes in the last 5 years or so. Is so much the same that, somehow, they insist having flights to Ezeiza, but they are completely unwise. For instance, there is one flight that lands early in the morning. The plane makes the route EZE-ABC-EZE-DEF-EZE. That is fine. But there are other planes that make the route EZE-ABC-AEP-DEF-EZE. Which is also fine. But one or twice a day, a plane must do the ferry EZE-AEP or AEP-EZE because of poor planing. STOP using EZE!!!
Anyway, having lost 690 Mio USD in 2018, and having a country completely bankrupted, i hope the new populist government does something. Dont forget that two airlines have closed since June 2019! (two out of seven).

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