|Quoting avek00 (Reply 52):|
British carriers were allowed to fly from Heathrow to nearly everywhere (at the time) worth serving nonstop in the USA while many US carriers were completely shut out from LHR.
as signed in 1977 only allowed two named American airlines to fly from LHR
to those US gateway cities listed in the agreement. They were PA and TW
. It also allowed one named British airline, BA
, to fly to a similar but not identical list of US gateway cities.
Other American and British airlines were not permitted to fly from LHR
to anywhere in the USA. So when VS
started North Atlantic operations to EWR
on 22 June 1984 it, like American airlines other than PA and TW
, flew from LGW
In 1991 following the collapse of PA and the deep financial problems of TW
, Bermuda II
was amended. It named AA
as the two replacement American airlines. At the same time VS
was added to BA
to give the UK numerical parity with the USA in terms of permitted operators.
In terms of US gateway cities (not airports) listed in Bermuda !! it is important to note that BA
and from 1991 both BA
were not allowed to serve the main (home) hubs of American airlines who were excluded from Heathrow thus ensuring more balanced competition. So there were no BA
flights from LHR
to the likes of ATL
. But BA
got around this restriction to some extent. While they operated a direct LGW
service they also operated indirect services latterly operating LHR
to feed onward services to oil producing areas in the Middle East and Africa.